PBL Midterm

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what do individual goals help with?

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what do individual goals help with?

reducing tension among group members

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what are questions to consider when making individual goals?

  • what are the group goals?

  • does the leader have any personal goals that differ from the group goals?

  • do the members have any different needs/goals that will affect the outcome of the group?

  • what outcomes do members expect?

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what is a norm?

the expected way of behaving in a particular scenario

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what are the benefits of having group norms?

  • expresses values and ethical standards of group

  • helps the group function effectively and efficiently

  • defines what is appropriate and inappropriate

  • enhances productivity in performing stage

  • ensures group survival in threatening scenario

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how might group norms work against group goals?

groups that encourage peaceful and quiet group conversations may result in members feeling unable to share their opinions freely

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what are explicit norms?

  • group norms that are written/stated verbally and shared by all members

  • usually imposed on group by leader

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what are implicit norms?

  • group norms that are rarely discussed/openly communicated but still expected

  • sometimes not understood by outsiders or new members

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what are interaction norms?

when it is specified how group members should communicate with one another

key question- what communication behaviour is appropriate?

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procedural norms

specifies how the group should operate and what structured procedures should be used

key question- how does the group operate?

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what is a status norm?

specifies the level of influence among group members and how status is earned/established in a group

key question- who has power and control?

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what is an achievement norm?

specifies quality and quanity of work expected from group members, helps determine time and energy devoted to working in a particular group

key question- what are the group’s standards?

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when does conformity occur?

  • group members adopt attitudes and actions

  • group members adhere to group norms

  • group members are favoured by the majority of group members

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what are some reasons you might feel obligated to conform?

  • wanting to be liked

  • having a lower status than other members

  • feeling obligated

  • you get along and like working with your group members

  • feel like might get punished for violating

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when does non conformity occur?

  • a member’s behaviour does not align with the group

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what does non conformity encourage

  • it encourages difficult conversations that can help improve the group’s performance (ligament concerns and alternative suggestions)

  • groups in balance can change norms as needed

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what is destructive nonconformity?

occurs when a member resists conforming to norms without regard for the best interest of the group and its goals

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what are the 3 actions to take with destructive nonconforming group members

  1. accept- put up with non-conformity

  2. confront- disrupt members’ actions and stand up against individuals

  3. exclude- stop including members who do not conform

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what is motivation?

it provides an incentive to contribute to achieve a group goal

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what is extrinsic motivation?

incentives that come from an external source

ex. boss or parents

*can be good or bad

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what is intrinsic motivation?

reward/incentives come from internal sources

ex. self praise

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what are the 4 categories of motivators?

  1. choice

  2. meaningfulness

  3. competence

  4. progress

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what is sense of choice (category of motivator)?

when someone feels like they have free will and the ability to make their own decisions

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what is sense of meaningfulness (category of motivator)?

the belief that the job is worth doing, so they are motivated to do so

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what is sense of competence (category of motivator)?

increased motivation when there is a clear goal at hand

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what is sense of progress (category of motivator)?

when there is a shared feeling that the group is accomplishing something

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what is a group norm?

it describes strategies for creating and changing explicit and implicit group norms

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what is constructive nonconformity?

occurs when a member resists conforming to norms as a way of altering members about problems that may prevent the group from achieving its common goal

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what is the Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO) theory?

the need for inclusion, control, and affection, which changes how group members interact

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what is inclusion?

the desire for attention and feeling accepted, and results in an ideal social memeber

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what are the 2 types of inclusion

under social and over social inclusion

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what is under social inclusion?

when a member may withdraw to avoid becoming hurt

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what is over social inclusion?

when a member seeks attention and can’t stand being alone

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what is control?

  • the desire to feel content and free to make decisions

  • some want to be in charge, others like to follow

  • results in a democratic member

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what is a democratic member?

a person with power and is comfortable giving and taking orders

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what are the 2 results of a poorly controlled group?

an abdicrat or an autocrat

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what is an abdicrat?

when a group member becomes submissive and avoids responsibility

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what is an autocrat?

when a group member tries to dominate the group and criticize other members

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what is affection?

  • the desire to express and receive warmth and be well-liked

  • when the need is met results in a personal member

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what is a personal member?

a person who is emotionally comfortable

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what are the 2 things that can be a result of affection needs not being met?

underpersonal or overpersonal

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what is underpersonal?

only superficial relationships because they think no one likes them

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what is overpersonal?

seeks intimate friendships despite disinterest of others and becomes too talkative

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what does FIRO help?

  • improve group performance

  • help meet group and individual needs

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why might FIRO be harmful?

not all behaviours are from unmet needs

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what is a role?

what you do and what members expect of you

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what are task roles? and give examples

behaviours that affect the group’s ability to complete its work

ex. coordinator, information provider, opinion provider, questioner, clarifier, analyzer, implementer

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what is social maintenance? and give examples

behaviours that affect how well group memebrs get along

ex. harmonizer, motivator, supporter, gatekeeper, team builder

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what is the role of the coordinator?

  • makes sure group is focused, plans and conducts meetings, assigns tasks, facilitates decision making, identifies group problems

  • makes sure meetings are productive and that members know the responsibilities

  • serves as chairperson

  • in ideal group multiple people would be coordinator

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what is the role of the information provider?

  • researches and shares information, makes suggestions, contributes expertise and skills

  • makes sure members are fully informed

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what is the role of the opinion provider?

  • expresses opinions, interprets opinions of others, makes sure members understand different points of view when making decisions

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what is the role of the questioner?

  • asks for info and opinions, clarification, makes people explain their thought process

  • helps group develop a better understanding in discussion

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what is the role of the clarifier?

  • explains ideas/suggestions corrects misunderstandings, makes summaries and refines goals

  • minimizes confusion and provides clearer understanding

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what is the role of the analyzer?

  • assesses everything and provides multiple options for solving problems

  • make sure group uses critical thinking and reasoning is sound

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what is the role of the implementer?

  • turns ideas into actions by action plans, providing assistance

  • without implementer group’s idea does not become reality

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what is Belbin’s Team Role Theory?

  • members complete roles compatible with their skills

  • team works best when there is a balance of primary roles and people work to their strength

  • the best team members have flexibility: assuming rules needed in particular context

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what are the roles in Belbin’s Team-Role Theory?

Coordinator/chairperson, sharper, innovator, resource investigator, monitor/evaluator, implementer, teamworker, completer/finisher, specialist

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what is the role of the coordinator/chairperson (Belbin)

clarifies goals, helps allocate roles, responsibilities, and duties, helps group come to conclusions

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what is the role of the sharper (Belbin)

seeks patterns in group work, pushes group toward agreements and decisions, and challenges others

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what is the role of the innovator (Belbin)

advances proposals and offers new and creative ideas, provides insight on course of action

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what is the role of the resource investigator (Belbin)

explores opportunities, makes contacts, shares external information, negotiates with outsiders, responds well to challenges

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what is the role of the monitor/evaluator (Belbin)

analyzes problems and complex issues, monitors progress and prevents mistakes, assesses the contribution of others, sees all options, judges accurately

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what is the role of the implementer (belbin)

transforms talk and ideas into practical action, develops actions plans for group members

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what is the role of the teamworker (Belbin)

gives personal support and help to others, is socially oriented and sensitive to others, resolves conflicts, calms the waters, serves as an ingroup diplomat

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what is the role of the completer/finisher (Belbin)

emphasizes the need for meeting schedules, deadlines, and completing tasks, searching out errors

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what is the role of the specialist (Belbin)

single-minded, self-starting, dedicated, provides unique or rare expertise and skills

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where do disruptive behaviours come from?

unmet personal needs but still interfere with the group’s needs

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list the disruptive behaviour roles

  • dominator

  • obstuctionist

  • attacker

  • egoist

  • support seeker

  • nonparticipant

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what is a dominator?

  • prevents other by participating by inhibiting effecting collaboration and decision making

  • interrupts, rejects ideas, and argues

  • high control and autocratic behaviour

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what is an obstructionist?

  • blocks group progress by making negative statements

  • changes subject and group direction

  • negative non verbal behaviour (ex. eyerolling)

  • creates disorder

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what is an attacker?

  • puts down other members for self centered reasons

  • sarcastic, unreasonably critical, takes credit for other people’s work

  • negative statements

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what is an egoist?

  • seeks personal attention

  • jokes a lot, brags, talks about personal issues

  • proud

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what is a support seeker?

  • needs group sympathy too often

  • inappropriate sharings

  • promotes themselves as helpless even when capable of task

  • distracts group

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what is a nonparticipant?

  • does not contribute

  • sits silently

  • distracted by other tasks

  • “present” but not “there”

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what is communication apprehension?

the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with others

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how can you reduce apprehension?

  • know you are not alone

  • be well prepared

  • learn communication skills

  • relax physically

  • think positively

  • visualize success

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members with high apprehension may…

  • avoid group participation

  • talk less

  • agree rather than disagree

  • smile and giggle inappropriately

  • fidget

  • use awkward phrases

  • have difficulty following discussion

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members with low apprehension may…

  • initiate discussion

  • speak more often

  • assert themselves and their beliefs

  • become group leaders

  • strategically choose when to speak and stay silent

  • appear more confident

  • dominate discussion

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what are strategies for helping apprehensive members?

  1. provide supportive and constructive feedback (smile and nod, don’t interrupt)

  2. encourage and include anxious members (ask questions)

  3. stop talking (with for others if they seem like they want to talk)

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what is assertiveness?

speaking up and acting in your own best interest without denying rights and interesting of others

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how does assertiveness benefits individuals and groups?

  • increase effectiveness

  • increase confidence

  • lower communication apprehension

  • lowers stress due to knowing how to handle situations

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what is passitivity?

someone with non-assertive behaviour due to low confidence or doesn’t want to express their opinions

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why might someone be passive?

  • low confidence

  • high communication apprehension

  • fears criticism

  • inclusion needs

  • feels powerless

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what is aggressiveness?

critical, insensitive, combative, abusive behaviour motivated by self interest at the expense of others, bullies others into submission

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why might someone be aggressive?

because their personal affection, inclusion, and control aren’t met or don’t know how to express assertively

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what is passive-aggressive

uncooperative and obstructive behaviour that appears cooperative by lacking respect to rights, appearing confident, and undermining others

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what makes groupwork the best?

if the members are assertive

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how can you enhance your assertiveness?

  • take time to prepare group meetings

  • make sure you get time to speak

  • be clear with your opinions

  • assertive body posture

  • express feelings

  • expressive speaking

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what is academic dishonesty?

knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage (McMaster definition)


intentional participation in deceptive practices regarding one's academic work or the work of another

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what are some examples of academic dishonesty offenses?

  • plagiarism

  • submitting the same work more than once

  • submitting work purchased that was not created by you

  • improper collaboration

  • help another student be academically dishonest

  • alter a grade that was already given


*first and second year students are the top offenders

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why is academic dishonesty bad for nursing students?

impacts care of patients in clinical setting

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what is a code of ethics

example of normative ethics in that they prescribe how members of a profession should act, given the goals and purposes of the profession related to individuals and society

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what is the Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses?

it presents a central foundation and provides guidance for ethical relationships, behaviours, and decision making to be used with porfessional standards, best practice, research, laws, and regulations that guide practice (from CNA)

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what is advocacy?

the act of identifying a cause and/or recommending a course of action, undertaken on behalf of persons or issues, in order to create equity and better health for all (from CNA Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses)

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what are the requirements for issuance of certification, any class

The applicant’s past and present conduct, in the opinion of the Executive Director or a panel of the Registration Committee, must afford reasonable grounds for the belief that the applicant,

i. does not suffer from any physical or mental condition or disorder that could affect his or her ability to practise nursing in a safe manner,

ii.  will practise nursing with decency, honesty and integrity and in accordance with the law,

iii.  has sufficient knowledge, skill and judgment to competently engage in the practice of nursing authorized by the certificate of registration, and

iv.  will display an appropriately professional attitude. 

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consequences of academic dishonesty

  • first offense up to the instructor

    • mark of zero

    • mark reduction

    • resubmit work

    • F for course

    • suspension

    • expulsion

    • innocent

    • no penalty

  • second or more up to school

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definition of RN according to CNA

RNs are self-regulated health-care professionals who work autonomously and in collaboration with others to enable individuals, families, groups, communities and populations to achieve their optimal levels of health. At all stages of life, in situations of health, illness, injury and disability, RNs deliver direct health-care services, coordinate care and support clients in managing their own health. RNs contribute to the health-care system through their leadership across a wide range of settings in practice, education, administration, research and policy.

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what does a metaparadigm do?

map out general parameters of a scientific discipline and focus on scientific efforts

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what are the 4 concepts of the metaparadigm in the Conceptual Foundation of the Practice of RNs?

  1. person/client

  2. environment

  3. health

  4. nursing

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what does the person/client refer to in the Conceptual Foundation of the Practice of RNs?

refers to the beneficiary of RN care, which may be an individual, family, group, community or population. RNs focus on wholeness, considering the biophysical, psychological, emotional, social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of the client

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