Exam 7

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What term describes the often automatic organization of items into familiar, manageable units which can boost memory if organized into personally meaningful arrangements?

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105 Terms

1

What term describes the often automatic organization of items into familiar, manageable units which can boost memory if organized into personally meaningful arrangements?

Chunking

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2

Divergent thinking

Thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question.

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3

Levels of processing model

Two types of processing: shallow (encode by repetition) deep. (encode context and reasons)

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4

Recency effect

Our ability to recall the items at the end of a list.

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5

Anterograde amnesia

Type of memory failure where people cannot encode new memories due to damage to the hippocampus.

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6

Rigidity

Impediment to problem solving where one has the tendency to fall into established thought patterns. (mental set)

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7

Three-box model

Information-processing example that includes: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

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8

Linguistic relativity hypothesis

Theory stating that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking.

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9

Recovered memory

Type of memory that may be constructed or false recollections of events.

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10

Selye, Hans - (1907-1982)

While doing laboratory research on rat subjects, he found that many different types of stressors, such as heat, cold, electric shock, and restraint, produced the same physiological response. He concluded that the physiological response to stress is nonspecific.

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11

Skinner, B. F. - (1904-1990)

He built on Pavlov's work to develop theories of operant behavior. He wrote The Behavior of Organisms in 1938, in which he described his work on operant behavior.

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12

Spearman, Charles - (1863-1945)

He theorized the existence of a general type of intelligence, the "g" factor, that underlies all types of intelligence.

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13

Sperry, Roger - (1913-1994)

A pioneer in the study of lateralization, the fact that the right and left hemispheres of the brain regulate different functions. He examined people who had gone through split-brain surgery, an operation that separates the two brain hemispheres.

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14

Sternberg, Robert - (1949- )

He developed the triarchic theory of intelligence. He proposed that there are three aspects to intelligence: componential, experiential, and contextual.

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15

Terman, Lewis - (1877-1956)

He developed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale in 1916. He believed in the existence of innate differences in intelligence and supported the eugenics movement of his time. He advocated widespread use of intelligence tests.

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16

Thorndike, Edward - (1874-1949)

He formulated the law of effect, among other theories of learning. He primarily focused on animal behavior.

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17

On average, people can repeat back a range of digits approximately how long?

7 to 9

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18

What term describes the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information and is evidence of learning?

Memory

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19

What term describes the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously and contrasts with the processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving?

Parallel processing

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20

According to the three-stage processing model, what term describes the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system?

Long-term memory

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21

According to the three-stage processing model, what term describes the immediate recording of sensory information in the memory system?

Sensory memory

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22

What term describes the processing of information into a memory system?

Encoding

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23

Respectively, what term describes the retention of encoded information over time and what term describes the process of getting information out of memory storage?

Storage, retrieval

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24

What term clarifies the short-term memory concept by focusing more on how we attend to, rehearse, and manipulate information in temporary storage as well as actively associate new and old information and solve problems?

Working memory

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25

What is unlike videotapes or photocopies, is personally constructed, is a survival skill, and helps you predict the future?

Memory

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26

What happens to information without focused attention?

It fades

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27

Whatever our age, when do we do better and more efficient work?

All answers are correct

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28

We consciously remember only what we have encoded, but the amount of material we can remember depends on what?

All answers are correct

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29

Respectively, what term describes encoding semantically (meaning) and tends to yield the best retention and what term describes encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words?

Deep processing, shallow processing

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30

What term describes the organization of knowledge into broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts that help us retrieve information efficiently?

Hierarchies

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31

Respectively, what term describes the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through cramming and what term describes enhanced memory after taking assessments rather than simply rereading information which can give you a false sense of mastery?

Spacing effect, testing effect

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32

Working memory capacity varies and what age group has more working memory capacity, can use their mental workspace more efficiently, and have a greater ability to multitask?

Early adulthood

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33

Respectively, what produces implicit memories (nondeclarative or procedural memories) and unconsciously encodes well-learned information and what term produces explicit memories (declarative memories) that involve encoding and require attention and conscious effort?

Automatic processing, effortful processing

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34

Respectively, which momentary sensory memory is a visual stimulus that has been described as a fleeting photographic memory and which momentary sensory memory is an auditory stimulus that seems to linger for 3 or 4 seconds if attention is elsewhere?

Iconic memory, echoic memory

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35

What term describes memory aids that use vivid imagery and organizational devices such as peg words, method of loci, acronyms, and acrostics?

Mnemonics

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36

Stress hormones provoke what emotion-processing clusters in the limbic system to initiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia and to boost activity in the brain's memory-forming areas?

Amygdala

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37

What plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning?

Cerebellum

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38

What has a vast storage capacity, but does not store information in precise locations, instead, many parts interact as we encode, store, and retrieve the information that forms our memories?

Brain

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39

What term describes a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event?

Flashbulb memory

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40

What deep brain structures are involved in motor development and facilitate the formation of our procedural memories for skills?

Basal ganglia

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41

The hippocampus is a temporal-lobe neural center located in the limbic system and is the equivalent of the "save" button for what type of memories?

Explicit

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42

What term describes an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation and is believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory?

Long-term potentiation

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43

What term describes the lack of conscious memory of our first three years due to a nonspeaking child's inability to index explicit memories and the hippocampus being one of the last brain structures to mature?

Infantile amnesia

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44

Memories are not permanently stored in the hippocampus, but what helps the hippocampus process and consolidate memories for later storage retrieval from other places in the brain?

Sleep

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45

What triggers stress hormones and helps explain why we long remember exciting or shocking events, such as our first kiss, an earthquake, or a tragedy?

Emotions

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46

What term describes the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood?

Mood-congruent memory

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47

What term describes a measure of memory retention that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time?

Relearning

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48

What can influence how we interpret other people's behaviors?

Mood

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49

What term describes a measure of memory retention where a person needs to only identify previously learned cues, such as on a multiple-choice test?

Recognition

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50

What researcher described that as additional rehearsal (overlearning) increases, relearning time decreases and illustrated that the speed of relearning is one measure of memory retention?

Ebbinghaus

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51

What term describes our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list?

Serial position effect

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52

What term describes a measure of memory retention where a person retrieves information not in conscious awareness, such as on a fill-in-the-blank test?

Recall

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53

Researcher Collier found that a familiar what can prime memory retrieval even in 3-month old children?

Context

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54

On recognition tests, a photograph serves as what which provides a reminder of information we could not otherwise recall?

Retrieval cue

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55

What term has been referred to as the "wakening of associations" and "memoryless memory" and describes the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory?

Priming

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56

What term describes the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information (forward-acting)?

Proactive interference

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57

What term describes the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information (backward-acting)?

Retroactive interference

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58

Before you go to sleep at night, when is a good time to stop studying in order to best commit information to memory?

1 hour

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59

What did Ebbinghaus create that demonstrated that the course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time?

Forgetting curve

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60

What Freudian term describes the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories and rarely, if ever, occurs according to memory researchers today?

Repression

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61

What can occur at any memory stage as we filter, alter, or lose information?

Forgetting

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62

What is not so much a matter of the decay of old impressions and associations as it is a matter of interference, inhibition, or destruction of the old by the new?

Forgetting

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63

Since remembering everything can be haunting and exhausting, the ability to discard useless or out-of-date information is surely a blessing; however, what initially causes us to forget is that we fail to do what properly?

Encode

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64

What term describes a situation where more forgetting occurs when a person is involved with other activities over a period of time?

Retroactive interference

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65

Respectively, what term describes an inability to retrieve information from one's past and what term describes an inability to form new memories?

Retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia

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66

The most common response to a traumatic experience is not what Freudian defense mechanism, it is typically etched on the mind as a vivid, persistent, and haunting memory?

Repression

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67

Source amnesia helps explain what term that describes cues from the current situation that unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience that may be similar but not exactly the same?

Déjà vu

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68

It is nearly impossible to sift suggested ideas out of the larger pool of real memories, so we fill in memory gaps (confabulation) with what?

All answers are correct

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69

s Most of what we know is not the result of memorization, but what research-based study technique could help you remember information?

Survey, question, read, retrieve, review (SQ3R)

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70

What term describes incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event and is so powerful that it can influence later attitudes and behaviors?

Misinformation effect

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71

What are some recommended memory strategies?

All answers are correct

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72

What term describes attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined and is at the heart of many false memories?

Source amnesia

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73

Since memory is not precise and to some degree is entirely false, what term describes that we often construct our memories as we encode them, and every time we "replay" a memory, we replace the original with a slightly modified version?

Reconsolidation

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74

A credible authority, repeated suggestions, imagination-enhancing techniques, and affirmation are all ingredients for creating what in a therapeutic setting?

False memories

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75

Because people construct their memories, what type of eyewitnesses, when exposed to misinformation, are more susceptible to believe that they saw the misleading details as part of the event?

Children

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76

The more closely something matches our _____ of a concept, the more readily we recognize it as an example of a concept.

Prototype

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77

What researcher identified the five components of creativity (expertise, imagination, venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment)?

Sternberg

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78

What term describes expanding the number of possible problem solutions?

Divergent thinking

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79

What term describes a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people that helps simplify our thinking?

Concepts

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80

We often form our concepts by developing a _____ that describes a mental image or best example of a category?

Prototype

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81

What term describes the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable?

Creativity

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82

According to research, how might one boost the creative process?

All answers are correct

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83

What term describes narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution?

Convergent thinking

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84

What type of psychologists study the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating?

Cognitive

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85

Studies suggest that a score at or above what number on a standard intelligence test supports creativity?

120

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86

What term describes the tendency to be more confident than correct and to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments?

Overconfidence

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87

What term describes judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes?

Representativeness heuristic

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88

Our judgments and decisions may not be well reasoned, therefore those who understand the power of what can use it to influence important decisions?

Framing

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89

What is a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem that contrasts with a strategy-based solution?

Insight

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90

What term describes a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem?

Mental set

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91

What term describes estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory?

Availability heuristic

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92

Social psychologist Janis concluded that people often do not use a reflective problem solving approach, they usually just follow their what?

Intuition

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93

Respectively, what term describes a methodical rule or procedure that guarantees the solution to a problem and what term describes a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently, but may also be more error prone?

Algorithm, heuristic

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94

Respectively, what term describes a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and ignores contradictory evidence and what term describes the inability to see a problem from a new perspective?

Confirmation bias, fixation

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95

What term describes clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited?

Belief perseverance

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96

Expanding what increases our ability to think and is the most tangible indication of our thinking power?

Language

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97

What term describes the stage in speech development, beginning at age two, where children speak a couple of words per statement using mostly nouns and verbs?

Two-word stage, telegraphic speech

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98

By about what age do those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or a signed language gradually lose their ability to master any language?

7

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99

Grammar is the system of rules that enables us to communicate with one another and what respective rule gives us meaning for morphemes, words, and sentences and what respective rule explains how words are combined into grammatically sensible sentences?

Semantics, syntax

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100

At what age range do children experience the one-word stage of speech development where they speak mostly in single words?

1-2 years old

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