Unit 5 Psych

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emotion

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Psychology

143 Terms

1

emotion

a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity

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Valence and arousal as dimensions of emotion.

Valence - how positive or negative the experience is

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Arousal - how active or passive the experience is

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James-Lange Theory

the theory that a stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain

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Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain

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Two-factor theory

the theory that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of physiological arousal

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Which theory about emotion is correct, according to SGNW?

James-Lange: suggested that patterns of physiological response are not the same for all emotions

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Cannon-Bard: suggested that people are not perfectly sensitive to these patterns of response, which is why people must sometimes make inferences about what they are feeling

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The amygdala's role in appraisal

plays a special role in producing emotions; the amydgala is an extremely fast and sensitive threat dectector

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Appraisal

an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus

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slow vs. fast pathways of fear

Fast pathway: goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala

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slow pathway: goes thalamus, cortex, then amygdala

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Emotion regulation

the strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience

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reappraisal

changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion-eliciting stimulus

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How is reappraisal a helpful skill?

it is associated with mental and physical health; therapists use it to alleviate depression and distress by teaching people to reappraise key events in their lives

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Emotional expression

an observable sign of an emotional state

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What evidence suggests that facial expressions are universal?

the universality hypothesis: emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone

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Facial feedback hypothesis

emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify

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What is the problem with lie-detecting machines?

A polygraph can detect lies at a rate that is significant, but the error rate does not make it reliable

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Emotions can be described by their location on the two dimensions of

arousal and valence

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Which theorists claimed that that a stimulus simultaneously causes both an emotional experience and a physiological reaction

Cannon and Bard

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Which brain structure is most directly involved in the rapid appraisal of whether a stimulus is good or bad

the amygdala

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Through ___, we can change an emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus

reappraisal

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___ is the idea that emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences

facial feedback hypothesis

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25

How have Christians tended to de-emphasize the role of emotions?

Many early Christian leaders felt that emotions were associated with our "fleshly" nature. It was presumed that emotions had a great potential to lead us into sin.

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What do stories of individuals who lack or have very limited emotions indicate about the importance of emotions?

It showed how integral emotions were into making decisions and relating to others. "Emotions assist us in virtually all of our decisions. Emotions help us to negotiate the social and interpersonal world around us..."

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27

What do the authors claim that the Bible indicates about emotion?

That when God created us in his image and with his characteristics, he created with the ability to have meaningful relationships with others. In order to have those connections, we need emotions and the ability to form emotional bonds.

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How are emotions to be "used" properly?

It is not the emotions themselves that are the problem, but rather how we use them. Scripture teaches that people need to be in control of their emotional response and consider the impact of emotions on relationships.

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What evidence suggests the value of negative emotions?

They can be used to identify the real source or situation to which we are reacting in order to learn how to constructively deal with the issue and to learn to regulate the intensity and direction of the emotions we experience.

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Stressors

specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being

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stress

the physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors

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chronic stressors

sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly

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stressful events

events that are less extreme than traumatic events and stem from single events or multiple or ongoing stressful situations or events; usually occurs from major life events or changes

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Perceived control: what makes events most stressful for us?

Events are most stressful when there is nothing you can deal with the challenge

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fight-or flight

an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action

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General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

a three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered

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Selye's three phases of stress response

  1. alarm phase: the body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to the threat; the body calls on its stored fat and muscle

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  1. resistance phase: the body adapts to its high state as it tries to cope with the stressor; it shuts down unnecessary processes: digestion, growth, sex drive, menstruation, production of testosterone and sperm

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  1. exhaustion phase: the body's resistance collapses; resistance phase defenses create gradual damage as they operate, leading to costs for the body that can cause further damage to health

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telomeres

caps at the end of each chromosome that protect the ends of chromosomes and prevent them from sticking to each other

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telomerase

an enzyme that rebuilds telomeres at the tips of chromosomes

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stress effects and aging (telomeres)

People exposed to chronic stress have shorter telomere length and lower telomerase activity; cortisol can reduce the activity of telomerase, which has downstream effects that causes accelerated aging and increased risk of diseases

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lympocytes

white blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection, including T cells and B cells

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stress effects on immune response

stressors can cause hormone glucocorticoids to flood the brain and wear down the immune system and make it less able to fight off infections

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stress effects on heart health (including effects related to Type A behavior).

chronic stress creates changes in the body that increase later vulnerability

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type a behavior pattern: the tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings

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Psychological reactions to stress

the body's response to stress that is intertwined with responses of the mind; the mind tries to interpret whether an event is threatening or not and whether something can be done about it

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primary appraisal

initial decision regarding whether an event is harmful

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secondary appraisal

determining whether the stressor is something you can handle or not

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differentiate threat vs. challenge.

threat: a stressor you believe you might not be able to overcome

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challenge: a stressor you feel fairly confident you can control

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Burnout

a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation

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why is burnout more likely to occur in helping professions.

those who repeatedly encounter emotional turmoil on the job may only be able to work productively for a limited time; emotionally stressful jobs lead to burnout

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repressive coping

avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint

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rational coping

facing a stressor and working to overcome it

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reframing

finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat

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meditation

the practice of intentional contemplation

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relaxation therapy

a technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body

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biofeedback

the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function

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aerobic exercise

exercise that increases heart rate and oxygen intake for a sustained period

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social support

the aid gained through interacting with others

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religious experience in reducing stress responses

Religious experiences can reduce stress by attributing to the strong and more extensive social network one is part of, or the following of healthy recommendations (fasting/dietary restrictions)

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Rational choice theory

the classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two

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availability bias

items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently

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heuristic

a fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached

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Algorithm

a well-defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem

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representative heuristic

a mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event

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framing effects

when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed)

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Prospect theory

people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains

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70

What is the relationship of the prefrontal cortex to risky behavior?

In studies where participants had suffered damage to their prefrontal cortex, they showed that their risky decision making grew from insensitivity to the future consequences of their behavior.

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Functional fixedness

the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed

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Problem of functional fixedness in problem solving

We have difficulty solving problems because of our tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal, typical functions

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belief bias

people's judgements about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid

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74

How does creativity show bearing God's image?

Christians believe that acting creatively in God's world (creation) is very much in line with being the image bearers of God's image; fulfilling their roles as God's agents working in his good creation

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System 1 vs. System 2 thinking and how responsible limited agency is seen in both.

System 1: fast, efficient, and intuitive; makes snap judgements (quick meaning maker, but no agency)

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System 2: slow, requires effort, and uses reasoning (involves agency and choice)

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Agency even in System 1

It would seem that agency is extremely limited if system 1 is often at play. However, your beliefs, reasoning, and behaviors come out of your embodiment and experiences, all of which are part of you. System 1 responses can change with experience. We can be responsible for our behavior despite limited agency.

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78

How do stereotypes impact our view of each other's humanity?

Using any negative stereotyping can result in limiting the expression of the image of God in others by reducing the other's humanity.

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79

How does the example from Greg Boyle suggest a different way of thinking about others?

Greg Boyle encountered people with God's perspective about each person. This gave way to compassion. This can be used by all Christians to lessen the tension between "us and them" situations.

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80

What does it mean to be "faithfully impulsive"?

Practicing habits like reading the Bible for support of faithful behavior and correction and redirection of sinful behavior can open one's eyes to critically examining impulses.

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81

social psychology

the study of the causes and consequences of sociality

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82

Aggression

behavior with the purpose of harming another

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frustration-aggression hypothesis.

the extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will act aggressively

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Gender differences in aggression

Women are more likely to plan an attack than act impulsively; more likely to cause psychological injury than physical

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situations in which men vs. women are more likely to be aggressive.

Men are often aggressive in situations that challenge their status or dominance, whereas women are more likely to be aggressive when focused on attaining or protecting their status.

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What evidence suggests that culture can influence aggression?

There is correlation between violent crime and areas where men are taught to react aggressively when they feel their status has been challenged. (North and South Americans).

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Cooperation

Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit

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88

What makes cooperation risky?

We expect others to cooperate the same as us, but that is not always the case, making it risky because you could end up putting in the bigger sacrifice and someone else not

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group

a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others

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prejudice

a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership

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discrimination

positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership

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common knowledge effect

the tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share

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group polarization

the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone

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groupthink

the tendency of groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony

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Deindividualtion

A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values

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diffusion of responsibility

the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way

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social loafing

the tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than when alone

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98

bystander intervention

the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation

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what situations impact bystander intervention

people are less likely to help an innocent person in distress when there are many other bystanders present, simply because they assume that one of the other bystanders is more responsible that they are

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100

Altruism

Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself

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