Chapter 1-4 Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy

the study of the structure of the body

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Physiology

the study of the function of the body

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Chemical level

represents the atoms and molecules that make up cells (Consists of Atomic level and molecular level)

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Cellular level

represents the basic unit of all living things

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Tissue level

a group of cells with similar or common function

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Organ level

a group of tissues with similar or common function

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Organ system level

a group of organs with similar or common function

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Organismic level

the entire body consisting of the various organ systems.

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Integumentary System

controls body temperature & protects body from environmental hazards

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Skeletal System

supports body, protects soft body parts, stores minerals, forms blood cells

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Muscular System

movement, support and produces heat

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Nervous System

controls immediate responses to stimuli

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Endocrine System

controls long-term responses in body

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Cardiovascular System

internal transport of nutrients, wastes, oxygen, carbon dioxide and cells

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Lymphatic & Immune Systems

defense, immunity and returns lost fluids to cardiovascular system

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Respiratory System

exchange of air and delivery of blood gases to/from tissues

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Digestive System

ingestion, breakdown and absorption of food & elimination of indigestible wastes

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Urinary System

filtration of blood to maintain proper water and salt balance and to eliminate waste products

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Reproductive System

produces sex cells and hormones related to reproduction

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homeostasis

condition in which body's internal environment remains within certain narrow physiological limits

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homeostatic regulation

adjustment of physiological system to maintain homeostasis

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receptor

monitors change in controlled condition (stimulus) and sends input to control center

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control (integration) center

receives input from receptor & determines appropriate response

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effector

cell or organ that receives information (output) from control center and produces a response (effect)

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interactions of a feedback system

stimulus -> receptor -> input (afferent pathway) -> control center -> output (efferent pathway) -> response

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positive feedback

the response by the effector to the initial change is to further exaggerate the change. Example in labor contractions, the contraction of the uterus forces the baby towards the birth canal, which

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places pressure on the cervix; the pressure of the baby against the cervix causes uterine contraction, etc.

...

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Negative feedback

the response by the effector to the initial change is to counter or reduce that change, thus bringing the system back to its "normal" state. Example When blood sugar level rises, the pancreas secretes

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insulin which causes the cells of the body to take in glucose, thus removing glucose from the blood and lowering blood sugar level.

...

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Anatomical position

patient is erect, feet apart and palms facing anteriorly Cephalic = head

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Cranial

upper portion of head surrounding brain

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Facial

face

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cervical

neck

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thoracic

chest

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axillary

armpit

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acromial

point of shoulder

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deltoid

fleshy portion of shoulder

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brachial

upper arm

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antebrachial

forearm

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antecubital

front of elbow

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carpal

wrist

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manual

hand

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digital (phalangeal)

fingers or toes

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abdominal

region of trunk between diaphragm and pelvis

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dorsal

back

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lumbar

lower back

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olecranol

back of elbow

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pelvic

pelvis

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pubic

anterior pelvis

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inguinal

junction of trunk and thighs (groin)

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gluteal

buttocks

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femoral

thigh

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patellar

front of knee

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popliteal

back of knee

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crural

anterior of lower leg (shin)

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sural

posterior of lower leg (calf)

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tarsal

ankle

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pedal

foot

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plantar

bottom of foot

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superior (

cephalic = cranial) = towards the head

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inferior (

caudal) = away from the head

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anterior (ventral)

towards the front

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posterior (dorsal)

towards the back

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medial

towards the midline

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lateral

away from the midline

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proximal

towards the point of attachment (limbs)

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distal

away from the point of attachment (limbs)

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superficial

towards the surface (i.e., skin)

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deep

away from the surface

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Sagittal

separates the body into right and left parts

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Midsaggital

median = separates the body into equal right and left parts

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Parasaggital

separates the body into unequal right and left parts

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Frontal

coronal = separates the body into anterior and posterior parts

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Transverse

horizontal - cross-sectional -separates the body into superior and inferior parts

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.

...

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dorsal body

The two major cavities of the body are the dorsal body cavity and the ventral body cavity.

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ventral body

The organs in the ventral body cavity are surrounded by serous membranes which allow for organ movement. There are no serous membranes in he dorsal body cavity.

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The dorsal body cavity

surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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It is separated into two subdivisions

the cranial cavity surrounds the brain and the spinal cavity surrounds the spinal cord.

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The ventral body cavity

includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.

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The thoracic cavity

is the cavity superior to the diaphragm and the abdominopelvic cavity is inferior to the diaphragm.

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The thoracic cavity is further subdivided into

two pleural cavities, which contain the lungs, one pericardial cavity, which contains the

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heart, and the mediastinum, which is the central region of the thoracic cavity containing the esophagus and trachea.

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The abdominopelvic cavity

is separated into two regions, which are not truly separated from one another in the

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body.

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These are the abdominal cavity,

which contains primarily the digestive organs and the pelvic cavity, which contains primarily the reproductive and urinary organs.

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Serous membranes (also called serosae)

are found within the ventral body cavity. They consist of two layers of membrane with fluid =(called serous fluid) in between the two layers.

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The inner layer

which is closest to the organ, is

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called the visceral layer.

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The outer layer

which is closest to the body wall, is called the parietal layer.

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Pleura

serous membranes surrounding lungs

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parietal pleura

outer serous membrane surrounding lungs

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visceral pleura

inner serous membrane surrounding lungs

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Pericardium

serous membranes surrounding heart

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parietal percardium

outer serous membrane surrounding heart

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visceral pericardium

inner serous membrane surrounding heart

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Peritoneum

serous membranes lining organs in the abdominopelvic cavity (surrounding digestive, reproductive and

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urinary organs)

...

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parietal peritoneum

outer serous membrane surrounding organs in the abdominopelvic region

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visceral peritoneum

inner serous membrane surrounding organs in the abdominopelvic region

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