Unit 2: Human rights

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139 Terms

1

rights

(Noun) something that you are morally, legally, or officially allowed to do or have

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2

violate

(Verb) to disobey or do something against an official agreement, law, principle etc

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3

United Nations or The UN

(Noun) an international organization that tries to find peaceful solutions to world problems

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4

discrimination

(Noun) the practice of treating one person or group differently from another in an unfair way

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5

intolerance

(Noun) unwillingness to accept ways of thinking and behaving that are different from your own

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6

equality

(Noun) a situation in which people have the same rights, advantages etc

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7

universal

(Noun) involving everyone in the world or in a particular group

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8

trafficking

(Noun) the buying and selling of illegal goods, such as drugs and people

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9

slave

(Noun) someone who is owned by another person and works for them for no money

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10

Article 3

Right to Life

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11

Article 12

Right to a Private life

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12

Article 4

Freedom from slavery

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13

Article 1

Right to equality

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14

Article 11

Right to be innocent until proven guilty

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15

Article 14

Right to asylum

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16

Indivisible

All rights are of equal importance and cannot be arranged into a hierarcy

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17

Inalienable

Rights cannot be taken away as all human beings are entitled to them

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18

Interdependent

Idea that by defending one right it will help with protection of others

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19

Negative rights

Rights that require individuals to be left alone and not interfered with

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20

Positive rights

Rights that require governments to provide services to better peoples' lives

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21

Justice

Concept of fair treatment for all regardless of race, age etc

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22

Rule of law

idea that no one is above the law, there is the right to fair trial, all are subject to the same law

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23

Liberty

Concept of allowing individuals the right to live a life without interference

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24

First generation rights

Rights focusing on protecting an individual from negative interference from the state, mostly negative rights

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25

First generation rights are articles

3 to 21 of the UN declaration

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26

Second generation rights

Focus on social and economic development, rights to fair conditions and equal treatment, positive rights

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27

Second generation rights are articles

22 - 27 of the UN declaration

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28

1948

When the UN declaration on rights was agreed

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29

Eleanor Roosevelt

Chair of the drafting committee of the UN declaration of Human Rights.

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30

18

Number from different political, cultural and religious backgrounds who drafted the UDHR

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31

Equality

Idea that all people are treated the same

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32

Third generation rights

Collective Human rights that may apply at a global level

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33

Rio declaration on the environment

Example of third generation rights in action

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34

HRW

Human Rights Watch

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35

Amnesty

NGO that specialises in raising awareness of rights abuses around the world

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36

Codified

Something that is enshrined within law and prosecutable

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37

ICC

International Criminal Court

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38

ICJ

International Court of Justice

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39

Cyrus cylinder

One of the first examples of a rights document

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40

Magna Carta

1215 - British example of a rights document, guaranteed first gen. rights on land

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41

Chapter 2

Enshrines the bill of rights into South Africa's consitution

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42

Rome Statute

Created the ICC that can prosecute signatories who commit crimes against humanity

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43

Al Bashir

Sudanese president wanted under the Rome statute

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44

Thomas Lubanga

Sentenced by the ICC for use of child soliders

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45

Promotion

Role of NGOs in ensuring Human Rights are championed

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46

UNHCR

UN High Commission for Human Rights

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47

UNHCR

Role is to monitor Human Rights

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48

UDHR

Set of guiding principles on Human Rights, not law

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49

China, Russia, USA

Have not signed the Rome Statute

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50

European Convention on Human Rights

Regional document that is legal binding on member states

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51

Right of UK prisoners to vote

A case where the ECHR overruled UK law to promote this right

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52

Cultural Relativism

Theory that ideas and norms should reflect different cultures and not be universal

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53

Guardianship system

Example of denial of rights in Saudi Arabia that some justify using cultural relativism

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54

Banjul Charter

Took into consideration the idea of collective rights

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55

Politicisation of rights

Criticism of Human Rights that promotion of them can be used to push political motives e.g. sanctions against N.Korea

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56

Same Sex Marriage

One example of a claim on Human rights, Australia recently adopted after a referendum

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57

Locke

Considered the ideas of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness which became the foundation of the US declaration of rights

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58

Indigenous

groups of people who may have their own language, small population and distinct cultural traditions

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59

Multilateral

Groups of states working together

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60

Bilateral

Two states working together

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61

Letter writing

Strategy adopted by Amnesty to raise awareness of rights abuses e.g. in Apartheid S.A.

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62

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

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63

Universalism

Idea of certain values or norms applicable to all people

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64

Example of first generation rights

life, liberty and property. Freedom from arbitrary arrest.

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65

Example of second generation rights

Social security, work, access to healthcare

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66

Example of third generation rights

Peace, development, environmental protection

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67

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

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68

Examples of things covered by the ICCPR

Free speech, forced marriage, racial profiling

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69

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

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70

ICESCR

Stressed the protection and promotion of positive economic, cultural, and social rights that government should provide its people

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71

ICCPR

Stressed the protection of negative political and civil rights from government infringement

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72

Examples of things covered by ICESCR

Withdrawal of healthcare, wage disputes, Child labour

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73

CEDAW

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

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74

CEDAW

Aimed to protect equality of women legally

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75

UNCRC

guiding principles- children have voice, no discrimination, survival and development, protection, participation

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76

UNCRC

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

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77

State that has not ratified the UNCRC or CEDAW

USA

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78

Number of security council members prosecuted in the ICC

0

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79

Argument on rights being politicised

Human Rights are used by a tool of the West to criticise developing nations

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80

Example of politicisation of rights

US criticism of North Korea / China (Xinjiang)

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81

Binding convention on rights

European Convention on Human Rights

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82

ECHR

European Convention on Human Rights

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83

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

an international human rights instrument that is intended to promote and protect human rights and basic freedoms in the African continent

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84

Example of specific issue handled by the African charter

Female Genital Mutilation

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85

Example of state that has Human Rights codified in their constitution

South Africa

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86

codified

Written into law

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87

UN Human Rights Council

Responsible for monitoring and upholding Human Rights

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88

relativism

Argument that rights should be modified to take account the differences in cultures

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89

Judiciary

Judges who are responsible for interpreting laws

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90

Executive

Propose laws

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91

Legislature

Vote on / amend laws

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92

Responsibility to Protect

A doctrine that says the United Nations must protect people within a state when that state violates or fails to uphold the rights and welfare of its own citizens.

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93

Tribunal on war crimes

Rwanda / Yugoslavia

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94

Geneva convention

A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war and how war should be conducted

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95

First Geneva Convention

Protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war

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96

Second Geneva Convention

Protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war

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97

Third Geneva Convention

Regulates the treatment of prisoners of war

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98

Fourth Geneva Convention

Regulates the treatment of civilians in times of war

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99

2.1 Key Concept: Human Rights

Human rights are indivisible rights, which all human beings are entitled to by virtue of their humanity without discrimination.

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100

What makes human rights?

  1. Indivisible

  2. Inherent

  3. Inalienable

  4. Interdependent

  5. Universal

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