Exam #1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is psychology

1 / 175

Tags and Description

Psychology

176 Terms

1

What is psychology

the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior

New cards
2

Different levels of analysis

behavioral, societal, mental, physiological, molecular, and neurochemical

New cards
3

Structuralism

identify the most basic elements or "structures" of psychological experience through introspection

New cards
4

functionalism

understand the adaptive purpose of thought and behavior

New cards
5

psychoanalysis

uncover mental processes that may be operating below conscious

New cards
6

behaviorism

uncover how animals learn behaviors through environmental experiences, and why people behave differently under different conditions

New cards
7

cognitivism

demonstrates how mental processes shape our behavior

New cards
8

Humanistic and positive psychology

how individuals find meaning and meet their full potential

New cards
9

What type of education do you need to become a psychologist?

advanced degree, usually a doctorate

New cards
10

clinical psychologist

perform an assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders; conduct research on people with mental disorders

New cards
11

counseling psychologies

works with people experiencing temporary or relatively common life problems such as career uncertainty, marital conflict, greed, and loss concerns

New cards
12

school psychologist

work with teachers, parents, and children to remedy students' behavioral, emotional, and learning difficulties

New cards
13

forensic psychologist

works in jails, prisons, and other settings to assess and diagnose inmates and assist with their rehabilitation and treatment; conduct research on eyewitness testimony or jury decision making

New cards
14

industrial-organizational psychology

work in companies and businesses to help select productive employees, evaluate performance, and examine the effects of different work settings; design equipment and workspaces to maximize employee performance

New cards
15

How do psychologists study behavior

using the scientific method

New cards
16

characteristics of the scientific method

empiricism, replication, publication

New cards
17

characteristics of psychologists

skeptical, open-minded, understand they can be fooled

New cards
18

different ways psychologists get fooled into believing what is not true

repetition of false information desire for easy answers and quick fixes selective perception and memory inferring causation from correlation exaggeration of the truth

New cards
19

what are the goals of the scientific study of behavior

describe behavior predict behavior identify causes of behavior to control or change it explain behavior

New cards
20

observational research

describes behavior; objectively observe and record behavior

New cards
21

correlation research

predict behavior; measures two variables, determine if a relationship exists between them

New cards
22

experimental research

identifying the cause and explaining behavior; control or manipulate one variable and determine if changes in the IV are causing changes in the DV

New cards
23

what is a scientific theory?

a systematic body of ideas that organizes what is known about a topic from past observations and makes predictions about future observations

New cards
24

what is a hypothesis

a prediction about the outcome of our research

New cards
25

how does support for hypothesis impact our use of theories?

if the hypothesis is supported, we have evidence of the correctness of the theory if the hypothesis is not supported, we have evidence against the theory theories with ample support become accepted as facts theories with little or no support are modified or dropped

New cards
26

what are variables

used to measure and is a quality or characteristic that can take on different values for different observations

New cards
27

manipulated variables

variable we change when doing research

New cards
28

measured variable

the variable we measure when doing research

New cards
29

operational definitions

define variables in terms of the operations performed to measure them (how to measure anger, happiness, funniness, ect.)

New cards
30

sample

a small group we measure

New cards
31

population

a large group of interest

New cards
32

biased sample

sample is not representative of the population we are trying to research

New cards
33

random sampling

all members of the population have an equal change of being selected for the sample

New cards
34

naturalistic observational studies

researchers make observations of people/animals in their normal environments; often use coding scheme to describe the observed behaviors

New cards
35

case study approach

detailed observation of a single individual to provide a description of the condition and its development limited usefulness because of the lack of comparative information

New cards
36

what Is meant by correlation is not causation

changes in A may cause changes in B if a correlation exists Changes in B may cause changes in A Changes in a third variable, C, may cause changes in A and B A and B may be related by coincidence

New cards
37

What does experimental research allow researchers to do?

allows researchers to identify causal relationships between variables

New cards
38

Correlation research

utilizes two measured variables

New cards
39

experimental research

manipulates one variable, measures another

New cards
40

random assignment

create two equivalent groups by randomly assigning people to one group of the other

New cards
41

random sampling

where we choose a sample from a population at random so that the sample is similar to the population

New cards
42

confound

any factor that covaries perfectly with the IV

New cards
43

External validity

can we generalize the results of our experiment to the population from which our sample was drawn?

New cards
44

Internal Validity

can we draw correct conclusions about the causal relationships between the IV and the DV?

New cards
45

construct

an abstract psychological concept we cannot observe or measure directly

New cards
46

construct validity

is our operational definition of a construct a good way to measure the construct?

New cards
47

why do we need statistics in behavioral research?

different people behave differently in identical situations, aka the world has variability Produces a p-value to tell us if an effect is actually happening

New cards
48

P-Value

probability that you would obtain the difference that you obtained just by chance

New cards
49

beneficence

maximize the benefits to society while minimizing harm to research participants

New cards
50

autonomy

allow research participants to give consent to participate in research; don't force or coerce people to participate

New cards
51

justice

don't conduct research on a small segment of the population; be sure that the people who are bearing the burden of participating are representative of the who can benefit from the research

New cards
52

measures of central tendency

mean, median, mode

New cards
53

descriptive statistics

summarize participants differing responses in terms of what was most typical and how much people's responses varied from the average

New cards
54

inferential statistics

use sample results to infer what is true about the broader population

New cards
55

reliability

extent to which a test produces consistent results

New cards
56

Who was Phineas Gage and why is he important?

iron rod through the skull destroyed a region of the lower and medial frontal lobe called the vMPF drastically changed demeanor and shows connection between prefrontal cortex and self

New cards
57

hemispatial neglect

caused by damage to the brain's cerebral cortex on one side, usually because of a stroke where the patient is unaware of the left half of the world

New cards
58

Who was H.M.?

suffered severe epilepsy and had part of his medial temporal lobes removed and could no longer form new long-term episodic memories

New cards
59

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord

New cards
60

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

connects the CNS to the rest of the body

New cards
61

somatic nervous system

voluntary muscle movement

New cards
62

autonomic nervous system

involuntary muscle movement

New cards
63

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight respose

New cards
64

parasympathetic nervous system

relaxed, natural bodily functions

New cards
65

key components of the endocrine system

hypothalamus, thyroid gland, pancreas, ovary, pituitary gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, testies

New cards
66

hypothalamus

links nervous system and endocrine system via the pituitary gland

New cards
67

thyroid gland

regulates energy metabolism

New cards
68

pancreas

regulates blood sugar levels

New cards
69

ovary

secretes female sex hormones

New cards
70

pituitary gland

master gland that controls other glands throughout the body

New cards
71

parathyroid

regulates calcium levels in bones and blood

New cards
72

adrenal gland

involved in flight-or-fight response

New cards
73

testes

secretes male sex homones

New cards
74

Endocrine gland operates while stressed

  1. brain detects stressor

  2. hypothalamus directs the pituitary to release a hormone into the bloodstream that increases the function of adrenal glands

  3. adrenal glands release more cortisol into the bloodstream

  4. cortisol changes the way multiple systems work

  5. brain detects elevated cortisol and tells hypothalamus that its enough

New cards
75

Lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insular

New cards
76

frontal lobe

complex thought, planning control of movement, map of the body's muscles

New cards
77

parietal lobe

touch, spatial awareness, map of the body's skin surface

New cards
78

temporal lobe

hearing, object memory

New cards
79

insular lobe

taste, awareness of internal organs

New cards
80

occipital lobe

vision

New cards
81

aphasia

impaired spoken communication, can be caused by a stroke in either of two regions of the brain

New cards
82

Wernicke's aphasia symptoms

saying many words that don't make sense unable to understand the meaning of words able to speak well in long sentences but they don't make sense using the wrong words or nonsense words unable to understand written words trouble writing

New cards
83

area of difficulty that contributed to HM

temporal lobe

New cards
84

what area of the brain is disrupted in hemispatial neglect

parietal lobe

New cards
85

what is the somatotropin map in the "somatosensory cortex"

on the border of the parietal lobe next to the frontal lobe

New cards
86

proprioception

sense of where/how the body is moving

New cards
87

how the frontal lobe execute our intentions

motor cortex in the frontal lobe somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe

New cards
88

broca's aphasia

injury to the frontal regions of the left hemisphere difficulty forming complete sentences leaves out words like "is" or "the" trouble understanding sentances

New cards
89

What are the connections that the prefrontal cortex regulates?

motor cortex, evaluation of our options and consequences, self-control, planning, attention, ect., executive functions

New cards
90

How is the insulation different from other lobes/What are the functions?

interoceptive rather than extroceptive hunger, thirst, pain, internal feelings

New cards
91

subcortical region

ancient and powerful structures supporting memory, emotions, and motivation

New cards
92

limbic system

major subcortical forebrain structures and are made of evolutionarily older "paleocortex"

New cards
93

place cells

individual neurons in the hippocampus selectively fire to represent a particular area in the world

New cards
94

hippocampus is essential in forming what kind of memory?

episodic memory

New cards
95

Amygdala

what emotional content did the experience have?

New cards
96

loss of amygdala use

loss of function can diminish the ability of both strong good and bad things to affect our decisions and memories

New cards
97

Brain regions important for motivation and habit formation

basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, caudate and putamen

New cards
98

thalamus

relay between cortical and subcortical regions

New cards
99

hypothalamus

communicates information to and from endocrine/hormone systems

New cards
100

Where is dopamine produced?

ventral tegmental area and substantial nigra (midbrain)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)