BIOL Exam 2

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Prokaryotes have nuclei but no mitochondria or chloroplasts.

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1

Prokaryotes have nuclei but no mitochondria or chloroplasts.

false

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2

Though diffusion results in a net movement of a substance from an area of high to an area of low concentration, it is based completely on random molecular motions.

true

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3

Sperm and eggs generally have a haploid number of chromosomes.

true

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4

Most marine fishes have body fluids more dilute than seawater and thus must drink seawater to replace osmotically lost water.

true

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5

Natural selection occurs when there are heritable differences among members of a population that lead some members to reproduce more successfully than others.

true

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6

The ecosystem best encompasses which one of the following?

The community or communities and the physical environment

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7

Typical marine fishes

tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is lower than that of seawater.

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8

A group of mussels of a particular type living together on a rocky beach is an example of a(an)

population

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9

Which of the following correctly links the type of organisms with the way they live?

Organisms part of the nekton swim

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10

Marine organisms whose internal salt concentration varies with that of their environment are examples of

osmoconformers.

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11

Why aren't cells larger?

Surface area to volume ratio

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12

It is impossible for an animal to be a poikilothermic endotherm

false

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13

Stromatolites are calcareous mounds formed by colonies of cyanobacteria.

true

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14

Diatoms have a protective covering made out of cellulose.

false

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15

Asexual reproduction in diatoms usually results in

One larger and one smaller cell.

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16

Dinoflagellates move using two flagella, one wrapped around a central groove, and one trailing free.

true

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17

Dinoflagellates are often responsible for toxic red tides and for the diffuse bioluminescence of the open sea.

true

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18

Foraminiferans and radiolarians feed by

using a network of pseudopodia to trap food.

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19

Dinoflagellates that live in association with reef-building corals and other animals are known as

zooxanthellae

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20

Responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning.

saxitoxin

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21

An organism responsible for bioluminescence.

dinoflagellate

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22

Deadly poision found in pufferfish and blue ring octopus:

tetrodotoxin

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23

In a diatom, the epitheca fits into the hypotheca.

false

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24

Has a vase-like test made of sand:

tintinnid

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25

In some seaweeds, leaf-like portions called blades are kept near the sea surface with gas-filled bladders called pneumatocysts.

true

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26

The Chlorophyta includes the largest algae, the giant kelps.

false

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27

Cordgrasses of salt marshes

Can excrete excess salt.

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28

Sea grasses grow in clusters interconnected with horizontal root-like stems.

true

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29

Salt marsh plants such as cordgrass are fully marine species.

false

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30

Pigment found in Phaeophyta

fucoxanthin

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31

The stem-like structure of seaweeds, such as kelp, is called the

stipe

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32

The root-like, anchoring structure of many seaweeds is called the

holdfast

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33

Part of the holdfast:

haptera

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34

Cordgrass (spartina sp.) are:

emergent

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35

Which is not a special adaptation for planktonic existence?

roots

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36

Salt-tolerant plants such as salt-marsh plants are called

halophytes

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37

Autotrophs

Self feeders via photosynthesis and chemothesis. Primary Producers.

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38

Heterotrophs

Eat organic matter, secondary producers.

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39

Plankton

Drifting organisms

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40

Nekton

Organisms that swim against the current

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41

Benthic

Bottom of the sea organism

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42

Diffusion

How gasses enter cells, high to low concentration of molecules until equilibrium, random motion of molecules

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43

Osmosis

Movement of water across membrane, moves from areas with less solute to more solute (low to high movement)

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44

Passive Transportation

No energy, diffusion

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45

Active Transport

Requires energy, osmosis

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46

Osmoconformer

Internal concentrations change to water, stay in favorable environment

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47

Osmoregulator

Control internal environment

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48

Saltwater Fish

Water loss by osmosis, drinks water, excrete salt from gills, small volume of salty urine

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49

Freshwater Fish

Water gain by osmosis, does not drink water, salt absorbed by gills, large volume of dilute urine

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50

Poikilotherm

Coldblooded, body temp varies with ambient temperature, cannot regulate

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51

Ectotherm

Regulates body temperature by exchanging heat with environment

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52

Homeotherm

Warmblooded, body temperature constant, independent of ambient temperature

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Endotherm

Generates heat to maintain its body temp, usually higher than ambient temperature

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54

Asexual Reproduction

Cell fission, daughter cells are typically smaller

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55

Sexual Reproduction

Union of gametes, genetic recombination

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56

Heterotrophic Prokaryotes

Decomposers, slower at depth

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57

Autotrophic Prokaryotes

Photosynthetic, chemosynthetic

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58

Chlorophyll

Green pigment

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59

Phycocyanin

Blue pigment

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60

Phycoerythrin

Red pigment

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61

Benthic Cyanobacteria

Microscopic colonies

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62

Stromatolites

Calcareous mound built up over time, associated with coral reefs

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63

Epiphytes

Attached to other plants

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Endophytes

Lives inside algae

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65

Endolithic

Burrow in calcareous rock/coral

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Mutualistic

Association between organisms of two different species in which each benefits

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67

Parasitism

One organism is beatified at the expense of another

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Commensalism

Epiphytes, one species obtains food in which one species obtains food or other benefits from the other without either harming or benefiting the latter

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69

Diatoms

Often most abundant and phytoplankton, frustule shell

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70

Dinoflagellates

Two flagella, photosynthetic pigments, articulated cell walls

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71

Zooxanthellae

Symbiotic dinoflagellate that supplies coral with nutrients, plays a part in red tides

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72

Phylum Chrysophyta (Silicoflagellates)

Star-shaped silica

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73

Phylum Haptophyta (Coccolithophorids)

Small calcareous plates = coccoliths warm and temperate seas

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74

Phylum Cryptophyta (Cryptomonads)

2 flagella, no skeleton

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75

Phylum Foraminifera (forams)

Several chambers, Pores, Pseudopodia extend thru to catch food

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Phylum Polycystina (Radiolarians)

Silica shell, pseudopodia

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77

Phylum Ciliophora (Ciliates)

Cilia, Paramecium (FW), Tintinnids, Vase-like test made of sand, drift

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78

Fungi

Eukaryotic, Multicellular (most), Decomposers, Parasites, Supports algae

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79

Bloom

A sudden and dramatic increase in the phytoplankton population over a restricted geographic region, increase of nutrients and light cause this event

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80

Chlorophyta (Green algae)

Simple filaments, Flat sheets, Branching

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81

Coraline Green Algae

Some epiphytes & endophytes

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82

Phaeophyta (Brown algae)

Fucoxanthin over chorophyll, Kelp: West coast of US, Sea bottom hard and stable

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83

Rhodophyta (Red algae)

Phycobilins over chorophyll

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84

Coralline Red Algae

Calcareous, Encrusting

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85

Blade

Cells on surface are more active in photosynthesis than deeper ones, Each surface similar in structure and function, Large kelp all look similar when young

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Pneumatocysts

gas-filled floats, Sargassum, N2, O2, CO2, and CO

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87

Stipe

May transport photosynthetic products down algae

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88

Holdfast

Short rootlike haptera, DO NOT take up nutrients

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89

Salt Marsh

Submergent seagrasses, horizontal rhizomes, pollen carried by water

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90

Cordgrass

Emergent, salt tolerant, excretes from leaves, salt marsh

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Halophytes

“Salt tolerant” found higher in the salt marsh

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92

Mangrove Swamps

Tropical and subtropical, tree-like plants, salt tolerant but not cold tolerant (replaced by salt marsh). Red, Black, and White variations

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93

Photocyte

“light cell”

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94

Photophore

more complex form of light emitting cells surrounded by pigments, mirrors, and light shields

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95

Scintillon

Small structures in cytoplasm that produce light

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96

Reasons for bioluminescence

Mating, avoid predation, lure prey, general defense

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