Semester 1 Science Exam

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What is an inference?

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Biology

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1

What is an inference?

a logical interpretation of an observation

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2

The statement "the worm is 2 cm long is________________

quantitative observation

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3

To be useful in science, a hypothesis must be _________________

testable

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4

What is a scientific Theory?

a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

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5

What must happen for a hypothesis to become a theory?

it must be supported by extensive observation and experimentation

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6

What is the control?

includes those factors that remain constant (not changing)

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7

What is the independent variable?

the factor that is being tested and is changed or manipulated

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8

What is the dependent variable?

The factor that is measured in an experiment. It is the result of the independent variable.

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9

What is the difference between an observation and an inference?

An OBSERVATION uses the senses to gather information

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10

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11

An INFERENCE is an interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience

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12

Why is it advantageous for scientists to test only one variable at a time?

so that only one observable factor affects the outcome of the experiment

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13

Where is the independent variable recorded on a graph?

on the x-axis (horizontal)

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14

Where is the dependent variable recorded on a graph

on the y-axis (vertical)

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15

A chick hatching from an egg represents what characteristic of life?

reproduction

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16

A seed developing into a tree represents what characteristic of life?

growth and development

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17

A webbed foot on a duck represents what characteristic of life?

adaption

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18

The information gathered from experiments is called

data

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19

A clam closes its shell when it is removed from its watery environment. Why does the clam behave in this way?

maintains stable internal environment (homeostasis)

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20

If members of a species fail to reproduce successfully, the species

will become extinct

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21

All living things are composed of __________________

cells

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22

Living things adjust to a stimulus by a reaction called a(n)

response

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23

what is a quantitative observation?

types of measurements: how big, how much, how many, how many times

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24

the parts of an organism (cell, tissues, organs, etc.) represent what characteristic of life

organization

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25

Which action or event causes a response

stimulus

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26

You begin to perspire in a hot classroom. What are you doing?

homeostasis

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27

Tissues are made of cells that are made of molecules. This is an example of

organization

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28

A tadpole becoming a frog is what?

growth and development

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29

When it is cold outside and you begin to shiver. What are you doing?

homeostasis

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30

What happens when something startles a turtle and it withdraws into its shell?

stimulus and response

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31

Two plants, same size, same amount of water and fertilizer. One is placed int eh dark and one is placed in the window. What is the independent variable?

amount of light

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32

A pet owner recorded the mass of her puppy once a month. At three months old, she started feeding it a special puppy food. What is the dependent variable?

Change in mass

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33

How is the image formed for a compound light microscope?

light passes through one or more lenses

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34

How is an image formed for electron microscopes?

a beam of electrons is uses

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35

What adjustment knob is used for focusing while using the high power objective?

fine adjustment knob

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36

What adjustment knob is used for focusing while using the low power objective

coarse adjustment knob

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37

What is the purpose of the diaphragm on the compound light microscope?

adjustment of the amount of light through the microscope

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38

which kind of microscope must view the specimen in a vacuum?

electron microscope

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39

Which specimens may be magnified over 200,000 times?

electron microscope

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40

What is the maximum magnification that is known for the compound light microscope?

2,000 times

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41

What is meant by resolution for microscopes?

measurement of the clarity of the microscope image

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42

Explain how to calculate total magnification for a compound light microscope?

multiply the power of the eyepiece lens and the objective lens

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43

What is the purpose of the revolving nosepiece on the compound light microscope?

changes the power of the magnification

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44

Which microscope can produce images that are three-dimensional?

electron

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45

What is the purpose of the stage on the microscope

for the placement of the microscope slide

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46

What is the definition of microscope magnification?

the ability to make an image appear larger than its actual size

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47

Why can only dead cells be observed under a microscope?

the cells must be viewed in a vacuum

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48

What is the contribution to Matthias Schleiden to the cell theory?

concluded that all plants are made of cells

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49

What is the contribution of Theodor Schwann to the cell theory

concluded that all animals are made of cells

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50

What is the contribution of Rudolf Virchow to the cell theory?

concluded that all cells come from preexisting cells

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51

Name the three parts of the cell theory

-cell is the basic unit of structure of living organisms

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52

-cells come from preexisting cells

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53

-all living organisms are made of cells

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54

a tissue is a group of

similar cells with a singular function (ex. muscle tissue for movement)

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55

What is the contribution of Robert Hooke to the cell theory

observed dead cells in cork and named the "cell"

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56

the cell is the basic unit of __________________ of living things

structure

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57

Cells come from ____________________ cells

preexisting

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58

All living organisms are made of ______________________

cells

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59

How are cells like a whole organism?

cells can carry out similar life processes as a whole organism

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60

Why are small cells more efficient than large cells?

substances do not have to travel as far in a smaller cell than a larger cell thus taking less time to provide nutrients or to get rid of wastes

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61

What common boundary do all cells have?

cell membrane

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62

All cells have _________________ on which proteins are made

ribosomes

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63

What is the purpose of the system of microfibers in the cell?

to provide support for the shape of the cell

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64

All cells have _______________ which provides instructions for making proteins

DNA

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65

What organisms are prokaryotes?

bacteria

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66

What is the main characteristic or prokaryotes?

do not have a nucleus or cell organelles

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67

If a cell of an organism contains a nucleus, the organism is

a eukaryote

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68

when did prokaryotes appear on earth?

3.5 billion years ago before eukaryotes

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69

Animal and plant cells are eukaryotes or prokaryotes?

eukaryotes

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70

It is believed that mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendants of

prokaryotes

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71

Which were the first cells with internal membrane compartments? (eukaryotes or prokaryotes)

eukaryotes

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72

When did the eukaryotes first appear on the earth?

1.5 billion years ago

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73

Which are the smallest and simplest cells? (eukaryotes or prokaryotes)

prokaryotes

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74

How is the genetic material displayed in a prokaryotic cell?

as a single, circular molecule of DNA in the cytoplasm

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75

Where is the DNA found in a eukaryotic cell?

in the nucleus

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76

What do bacteria have in place of an internal supporting skeleton?

strong cell wall

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77

What is the purpose of the capsule on some bacteria?

enables the bacteria to cling to almost anything

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78

What is the purpose of the flagella for bacteria?

enable movement

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79

What unit of measurement is used in determining the size of cells?

um (micrometer)

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80

In many cells, the structure that controls the cell's activities is the

nucleus

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81

What is a vesicle?

small membrane-bound sac

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82

Distinct threadlike structures containing genetic information are

chromosomes

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83

The organelle that makes energy available for the cell is

the mitochondrion

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84

What is the function of the nuclear envelope?

a double membrane with pores that allow materials to move in and out of the cell

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85

What happens in the rough endoplasmic ER

-ribosomes are found on the rough ER

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86

-newly made proteins move form the ribosomes to the ER where they are chemically modified

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87

What is the main function of the cell wall?

support and protection

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88

What is the function of ribosomes?

produce proteins following the genetic code from the nucleus

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89

describe the role of the golgi apparatus

proteins are packaged and sorted (by attaching carbohydrates and lipids to proteins) to be sent out of the cell

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90

What is chromatin

granular material in the nucleus consists of DNA bound to proteins

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91

What is the function of the nucleolus?

small dense region in the nucleus where the assembly of ribosomes begins

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92

What are the two types of structures that make up the cytoplasm?

microfilaments and microtubules are dispersed throughout the cytosol to help maintain cell structure and help with movement of organelles

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93

what is the purpose of the vacuole?

store water and dissolved substances in plants. Smaller vacuoles in animal cells may also store food

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94

What is the difference between a rough and a smooth ER?

smooth ER does not have ribosomes as the rough ER does. SER is responsible for membrane manufacture

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95

what is the function of a lysosome?

these small organelles contain digestive enzymes

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96

what outer boundary to plants cells have that animal cells do not?

cell wall

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97

the cell wall in plants contains what polysaccharide?

cellulose

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98

what takes up the main part of the plant cell?

central vacuole

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99

the organelle in plants that carries out photosynthesis is the

chloroplast

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100

what organelle do animal cells have that plant cells do not have?

centrioles

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