Chemistry EOC Review Semester 1

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Chlorate

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266 Terms

1

Chlorate

ClO3 -1

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2

Phosphate

PO4 -3

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3

Nitrate

NO3 -1

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4

Carbonate

CO3 -1

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5

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

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6

Liquid

the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape

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7

Solid

the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed

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8

Gas

a form of matter that doesn't have a definite volume or shape

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9

Compound

a compound made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

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10

Symbol

Abbreviations used in chemistry for chemical, functional groups and chemical compounds

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11

Formula

the way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitutions a particular chemical compound or molecule using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes other symbols

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12

Mixture

two or more liquids mixed together physically not chemically- not solid or a gas

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13

Proton

positively charged ion

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14

Electron

negatively charged ion

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15

Neutron

an ion that has no charge

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16

Law of Conservation of Mass

the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes

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17

Mono

1

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18

Di

2

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19

Tri

3

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Tetra

4

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21

Penta

5

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22

Hexa

6

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23

Hepta

7

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24

Octa

8

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25

Nona

9

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26

Deca

10

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27

Non acid that looses one oxygen (remember ates)

-ite

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28

Non acid that looses two oxygen (remember ates)

hypo- -ite

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29

Non acid that gains one oxygen

per- -ate

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30

Basic Acid

hydro- -ic

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31

Ending with ate acid

-ic

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32

Acid that lost oxygen (ite in basic)

-ous

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Acid that lost two oxygens (hypo- -ite in basic)

hypo- -ous

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34

Acid that gains an oxygen (per- -ate in basic)

per- -ic

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35

Ammonium

NH4 +1

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36

Acetate

C2H3O2 -1

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37

Chromate

CrO4 -2

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38

Dichromate

c2O7 -2

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39

Hydroxide

OH -1

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40

Hydride

H -1

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41

Mole

6.02 X 10^23

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42

Salts containing Group 1 elements

Soluble

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43

Salts containing the ammonium ion NH4 +1

Soluble

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44

Salts containing nitrate ion NO3 -3 or chlorate ion ClO3 -1

Soluble

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45

Salts containing Cl- Br- I- Exclusions to rule: Ag+ Pb+2 Hg+2

Soluble

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46

Salts containing acetate

Soluble

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47

Silver salts

Insoluble

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48

Sulfate salts Exceptions: BaSO4 PbSO4 Ag2SO4 CaSO4 SrSO4

Soluble

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Sulfides Exceptions: Barium, Calcium, Strontium, and column 1 metals

Insoluble

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50

Carbonates Exceptions: Column one metals

Insoluble

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51

Chromates Exceptions: Column one metals

Insoluble

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52

Phosphates Exceptions: Column one metals

Insoluble

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53

Fluorides Exceptions: Column one metals

Insoluble

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54

Silicates Exceptions: Column one metals

Insoluble

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55

Strong Acids

HNO3, HCl, HClO4, HI, HBr, H2SO4

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Strong Bases

NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2

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Organic Compounds (soluble or insoluble)

Almost always insoluble

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Water (soluble or insoluble)

Not soluble

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Percent Composition

Find the weight of each element and divide that by the total weight of the compound

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60

Empirical Formula

A. If given percents - make the mythical 100 gram sample and then turn it into moles. Divide the lowest number to get a ratio, if the ratio is a whole number (or close by .1 or .9) then you can round. If it is not a whole number you can multiply them ALL by 2,3,4,5,etc... to get them to whole numbers. B. Given a compound weight - find the weight of the empirical formula and divide the given weight by the weight of the empirical formula. However many times the empirical weight goes into the compound weight must multiply the empirical formula by that number.

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61

Net Ionic Equations

  1. Balance the equation

  2. Decide if the compounds are soluble or not

  3. Break apart the soluble ones with charges

  4. Cross out ions same on both sides of equation

  5. Remaining ions (with charges)/compounds = net ionic equation

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Stoichiometry

  1. Write/balance the equation

  2. Convert what was given into moles

  3. Converts moles of what is given to moles of what is asked for (this means the ratio from the balanced equation)

  4. Convert moles of what is wanted to grams

If given amounts of two reactants then must get moles of both then compare the amounts to the ratio from the equation, if the number is too big that means the one on the bottom is the limiting reagent and if the number is too big the one on the top is the limiting reagent. Then use the mole of the limiting reagent to move forward starting at number 3 above.

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Li

Lithium (+1)

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Na

Sodium (+1)

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K

Potassium (+1)

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Rb

Rubidium (+1)

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Cesium (+1)

Cs

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Fr

Francium (+1)

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Beryillum

Be (+2)

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Mg

Magnesium (+2)

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Ca

Calcium (+2)

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Strontium (+2)

Sr

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Ba

Barium (+2)

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Radium (+2)

Ra

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75

Al

Aluminum (+3)

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Fe

Iron (+2)

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77

W

Tungsten

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Au

Gold

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79

Ag

Silver (+1)

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80

Zinc

Zn (+2)

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81

Cd

Cadmium (+2)

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82

Pb

Lead

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83

Boron

B (+3)

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84

Carbon

C (-4)

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85

Phosphorous

P (-3)

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86

Oxygen

O (-2)

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87

Ionic Compound

A metal and non metal

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88

Converting moles to grams

moles x molar mass/1 mol

  • Start with moles (2.792 mole H2O), multiply by grams (18 grams in H2O) and divide by 1 mole (6.02) = 50.0 gr H20

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Converting grams to moles

grams x 1 mol/ molar mass of element

  • 116 gr O2, multiply by 1 mole (6.02) and divide by molar mass (32 gr total in O2)

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90

Helium

He (neutral)

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91

Fluorine

F (neutral or -1)

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92

Neon

Ne

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Silicone

Si

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94

Argon

Ar

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95

Scandium

Sc (+3)

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96

Titanium

Ti

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97

Vanadium

V

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98

Chromium

Cr

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99

Manganese

Mn

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100

Cobalt

Co

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