AQA BIOLOGY topic 5

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What is photosynthesis?

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Biology

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1

What is photosynthesis?

Occurs ONLY in plants. The plant makes glucose from light, carbon dioxide and water

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2

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

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3

How is energy stored in plants?

In the glucose until plants release it by respiration

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4

What is a metabolic pathway?

A series of reactions that are catalyzed by different enzymes and result in one or more products - photosynthesis

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5

What is aerobic respiration?

Respiration with oxygen

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6

What is anaerobic respiration?

Respiration without oxygen

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7

What is respiration?

The release of energy from glucose

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8

What is the chemical equation for aerobic respiration?

C6H12 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

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9

What does anaerobic respiration produce in plants and yeast?

Ethanol, carbon dioxide and releases energy

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10

What does anaerobic respiration produce in humans?

Lactate and releases energy

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11

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate - immediate source of energy in a cell

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12

In respiration, the energy released from glucose is used to make.....

ATP

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13

Describe the structure of ATP

Adenine base, combined with ribose sugar and three phosphate groups

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14

how is ATP synthesized?

Via a condensation reaction between ADP (adenosine diohosphate) + P ( inorganic phosphate) using energy from an energy releasing reaction eg the breakdown of glucose in respiration

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15

Where is energy stored in ATP?

In the phosphate bond

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16

What enzyme catalyses the synthesis of atp?

ATP synthase

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17

What is phosphorylation?

Addition of a phosphate group

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18

How does ATP release energy in a cell?

Diffuses to part of cell that needs energy, here it is broken down back into ADP+P by hydrolysis- chemical energy is then released from the phosphate bond that was broken

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19

What enzyme catalyses the breakdown of ATP

ATP hydrolase

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20

6 ATP properties that make it so useful

  1. Stores or releases only small manageable amount

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  1. Small soluble so easily transported

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  1. Easily broken down

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  1. Quickly remade

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  1. Can make other molecules more reactive by transferring phosphate group

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  1. Can't pass out of cell

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26

What is the compensation point for light intensity?

When there is a particular level of light intensity at which the rate of photosynthesis exactly matches the rate of respiration

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How do you work out the compensation point in plants?

Measure the rate at which oxygen is used at different light intensities - photosynthesis produces oxygen and respiration uses it so the compensation point is the light intensity at which oxygen is being used as quickly as it's produced

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28

Where does photosynthesis take place?

Chloroplast

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29

Chloroplasts are small flattened organelles surrounded by a double membrane. ..........1........... are stacked into structures called ................. which are linked tighter by bits of .........1...... membrane called .................

Thylakoids

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Grana

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Lamellae

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32

What are photosynthetic pigments?

Coloured substances that absorb light energy needed for photosynthesis

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Photosynthetic pigments are found in the ................. ..................... and they're attached to ................... . This is called a .........................

Thylakoid membrane

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Proteins

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Photosystem

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36

What are the two photoSystems?

Photosystem 1 - absorbs light best at wavelength of 700nm

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Photosystem 2 - absorbs light best at 680nm

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38

Describe stroma

Gel like substance contained within the inner membrane of a chloroplast and surrounding the thylakoids , contains enzymes, sugars and organic acids

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39

Carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis and not used straight away are stored as............

Starch grains in the stroma

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40

What are redox reactions?

Oxidation-reduction reactions. Electrons are transferred from one molecule to another

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41

If something is reduced It has .................. electrons and may have gained hydrogen or lost ................

Gained

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Oxygen

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43

If something is oxidised it has .............. electrons and may have lost hydrogen or .............. oxygen

Lost

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Gained

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Oxidation on one molecule always involves ................. of another molecule

Reduction

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46

What is a coenzyme?

AIDS the function of an enzyme- work by transferring a chemical group from one molecule to another

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47

What is NADP and what does it do?

A coenzyme used in photosynthesis - transfers hydrogen from one molecule to another ( it can reduce or oxidise a molecule)

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48

What are the 2 stages that make up photosynthesis?

The light dependent reaction

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49

The light independent reaction ( the Calvin cycle)

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the light dependent reaction needs ............... it takes place in the ................ .............. of the chloroplasts. Light energy is absorbed by ..................... in the photoSystems. The light energy excites the ................... in the chlorophyll giving them more energy which eventually causes them to be ............... from the chlorophyll molecule. This process is called ............................

Light

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Thylakoid membrane

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Chlorophyll

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Electrons

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Released

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Photo ionisation

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After photoionisation in the light dependent reaction, the chlorophyll molecule is now a ........................ charged ion. Some of the energy released from electrons is used to add a ........................... to adp to form atp and some is used to .............. NADP to form ............ NADP. ATP transfers .............. and NADP transfers ................. to the light independent reaction.

Positively

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Phosphate group

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Reduce

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Reduced

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Energy

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Hydrogen

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62

Briefly describe the light independent reaction ( Calvin cycle)

Doesn't use light energy directly but uses the products of the light dependent reaction, takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast . The atp and reduced NADP supply the energy and hydrogen to make glucose from co2

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63

What are electron carriers?

Proteins that transfer electrons

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64

What is chemiosmosis?

The process of electrons flowing down the electron transport chain and creating a proton gradient across the membrane to drive atp synthesis.

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65

A proton is the same thing as

A hydrogen ion

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What are the two types of photophosphorylation?

Non cyclic

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Cyclic

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The Calvin cycle makes a molecule called ............ ..................... from .................. and ................ ............................. ( 5 carbon compound)

Triose phosphate

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Co2

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Ribulose bisphosphate

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71

Draw a diagram of the Calvin cycle

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72

What happens in the 1st stage of the Calvin cycle?

Co2 is combined with ribulose bisohosphate - catalysed by enzyme rubisco

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This gives an unstable 6 carbon compound which breaks down into two molecules of a 3 carbon compound called glycerate 3-phosphate

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74

What happens in the 2nd stage of the Calvin cycle?

Formation of triose phosphate- glycerate 3 phosphate is reduced to a compound called triose phosphate , some is converted into useful organic compounds such as glucose and some continues in the Calvin cycle

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What is the final stage of the Calvin cycle

Regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate five of the six triose phosphates are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate not male glucose

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76

What is a hexose sugar?

Simple 6 carbon sugar like glucose

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How is a hexose sugar made?

By joining two molecules of triose phosphate together

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78

How many times does the Calvin cycle need to turn to produce 1 hexose sugar?

6 times

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79

How many ATP and reduced NADP is needed from the light dependent reaction for 6 turns of the Calvin cycle?

18 ATP

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80

12 reduces NADP

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81

Why is it important that ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated in the Calvin cycle?

If it wasn't then glycerate 3 phosphate wouldn't be formed, Calvin cycle would stop and photosynthesis would stop

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82

The Calvin cycle is also called ...........

Carbon fixation because carbon from co2 is fixed into an organic molecule

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83

What are the inputs and outputs of Calvin cycle?

Inputs- co2, atp, reduced NADP

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Outputs- organic substances, ribulose bisphosphate

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85

What 3 things are made from triosphosphate and glycerate 3phosphate molecules?

Carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids

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86

What are the 4 ideal conditions for photosynthesis?

  1. High light intensity of a certain wavelength

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87
  1. Temperature around 25 degrees

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  1. C02 at 0.04%

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  1. Right amount of water

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90

What are the coenzymes used in respiration?

NAD and FAD - transfer hydrogen from one molecule to another

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Coenzyme A - transfers acetate between molecules

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92

What are the 4 stages of aerobic respiration?

Glycolysis

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Link reaction

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Kerbs cycle

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95

Oxidative phosphorylation

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96

What are the 2 stages of glycolysis?

Phosphorylation

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Oxidation

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What are the products of glycolysis is aerobic respiration?

2 reduced NAD

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2 ATP

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2 pyruvate

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