Sterling BIology exam

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

6 elements of living things

1 / 111

Tags and Description

Biology

9th

bio exam

112 Terms

1

6 elements of living things

Cellular organization, the ability to reproduce, growth & development, energy use, homeostasis, response to their environment, and the ability to adapt.

New cards
2

What is special about carbon?

it is found in all living organisms. Element of life

New cards
3

Biotic vs. Abiotic

Biotic- living, has lived, comes from a living thing Abiotic- never lived, never will live, never has lived

New cards
4

Carbs in animals vs. plants

Plants quick energy is glucose and humans quick energy is glucose. Humans storage is glycogen and plants storage is starch.

New cards
5

Food examples of carbohydrates.

Bread, Pretzel

New cards
6

cellular respiration equation

C6H12O6+6O2---> 6CO2+6H2O+ATP

New cards
7

Cellular respiration location

mitochondrial matrix

New cards
8

Carbon cycle

Carbon- the carbon cycle could not happen without decomposition. Carbon can not be created or destroyed. It is cycled through the biosphere in different forms. It enters the atmosphere through combustion and respiration. Fungi, bacteria, and worms can break down dead animals and organisms.

New cards
9

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen- bacteria involved is denitrifying, n-fixing and nitrifying. Denitrifying bacteria converts nitrates in soil to atmospheric nitrogen. N2 is removed from the atmosphere by us breathing it in, lightning, and bacteria. If nitrifying bacteria disappeared, then nitrogen could not flow as easily, there would be lots of Ammonia, and plants would decrease. Nitrification makes Ammonia to nitrates. Denitrification is making nitrates into nitrogen. Humans obtain nitrogen by the food they eat, and breathing it in. Nitrate is NO3.

New cards
10

Water cycle

Major areas of water storage area are atmosphere, ocean, surface water, and soil/groundwater. Groundwater is stored in aquifers. Rain, sleet and snow are precipitation.

New cards
11

Reactants and products of photosynthesis

reactants: carbon dioxide and waterproducts: glucose and oxygen

New cards
12

photosynthesis chemical formula

6H20 + 6CO2 → c6H12O6 + 6 O

New cards
13

Compare and contrast light dependent and light independent reactions

Light independent uses a rubisco to fix the carbon. The reactants are ATP, NaDPH, RubP, CO2, Nadp+. The reactants for the Light dependent cycle are sunlight and H20, and it makes NadPH, ATP, and oxygen. 6 carbons go into phase 1, 9 in phase 2, and 15 in phase 3. This phase occurs in the Stroma. The light- dependent cycle occurs in the thykaloid membrane.

New cards
14

ATP vs ADP

ATP has 3 phosphate groups and ADP has two phosphate groups.

New cards
15

Steps of light dependent reactions

High energy electrons move through the electron transport chain.Pigments in Photosystem II absorb light.ATP synthase allows H+ ions to pass through the thylakoid membrane.

New cards
16

Reactants and products for light dependent photosynthesis

Sunlight, water → NADPH, ATP, oxygen

New cards
17

What goes in and comes out of the light indpendent cycle?

Rubp, CO2, ATP, NAdPh, Nadp →glucose

New cards
18

What happens to the carbon?

It exits the cycle.

New cards
19

Niche

Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions

New cards
20

habitat

Place where an organism lives

New cards
21

Positive and negative relationships

Positive- both organisms are positively affected or not affected at all. Negative- one organism is harmed.

New cards
22

Commensalism

A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected

New cards
23

Parasitism

A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed

New cards
24

Mutualism

A relationship between two species in which both species benefit

New cards
25

competition

the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

New cards
26

effect of invasive species

Invasive species take the food and resources of the original species.

New cards
27

Population growth=...

(Births + Immigration) - (Deaths + Emigration)

New cards
28

Density Dependent vs Density Independent Factors

Density-dependent regulation can be affected by factors that affect birth and death rates such as competition and predation. Density-independent regulation can be affected by factors that affect birth and death rates such as abiotic factors and environmental factors, i.e. severe weather and conditions such as fire.

New cards
29

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

New cards
30

reasons why populations crash

invasive species, not enough energy

New cards
31

Exponential vs. Logistic Growth

Exponential growth occurs when a populations size increases dramatically over a period of time, logistic growth occurs when a population begins with slow growth followed by a period of exponential growth then leveling off stably

New cards
32

Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food

New cards
33

Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

New cards
34

Producer

An organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings

New cards
35

Consumer

An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

New cards
36

Decomposer

An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

New cards
37

effects of changing numbers of carnivores and herbivores.

more carnivores, less meat; more herbivores, less plants

New cards
38

Levels of food pyramid

primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer

New cards
39

10% rule

Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.

New cards
40

Food web vs Food chain vs energy pyramid

food web shows many interactions, food pyramid shows levels of energy, food chain shows a single line of interaction

New cards
41

Hooke

named cells

New cards
42

Van Leeuwenhoek

First to observe bacteria

New cards
43

Schleiden

cell is the basic unit of plant structure

New cards
44

Schwann

all animals are made of cells

New cards
45

Remack and Virchow

-Remack; Jewish/German was first to observe and describe cell division-Virchow; German took all the credit

New cards
46

prokaryotic cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

New cards
47

Eukaryotic cells

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

New cards
48

Animal vs. Plant Cells

Animal cells have centrioles (plant cells dont). Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts (animal cells dont). Plant cells have a large central vacuole and a chloroplast. An animal cell has a lysosome

New cards
49

Ribosomes

Makes proteins

New cards
50

Lysosomes

Cleans the cell

New cards
51

cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

New cards
52

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

New cards
53

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled.

New cards
54

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

creates lipids or fat

New cards
55

Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

New cards
56

Nucleus

DNA is stored here. Controls the cell.

New cards
57

Cytoplasm

all organelles are suspended here.

New cards
58

Golgi apparatus

Packages proteins for transport out of the cell

New cards
59

polar vs nonpolar

polar is unequal sharing of electrons, nonpolar is equal sharing of electrons. Polar CAN mix with water (phosphate group), Non-Polar can not mix with water (fatty acids)

New cards
60

electrons of water

not equally shared

New cards
61

Covalent vs. Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds are much weaker than covalent bonds. A covalent bond shares valence electrons. It holds the hydrogen atom to the oxygen atom. A hydrogen bond links multiple water molecules together.

New cards
62

lipid structure

two fatt acid tails. One saturated and one unsaturated. Non-polar.

New cards
63

Lipid functions in the body

long term energy storage and insulation

New cards
64

examples of lipids

fats, oils, waxes, steroids

New cards
65

saturated vs unsaturated

Saturated: no double bondsUnsaturated: double bonds

New cards
66

Triglyceride vs. Phospholipids

A triglyceride has three fatty acids and a glycerol. They are a long term storage of energy. A phospholipid has two fatty acids and a glycerol. They make up the cell membrane

New cards
67

elements in lipids

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

New cards
68

what makes a phospholipid polar?

phosphate group

New cards
69

Hydrophobic vs. Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic means they are scared of water; hydrophilic likes water.

New cards
70

Why do phospholipids form a bilayer?

-the polar heads are hydrophilic so they want to be touching the water, so they arrange themselves on the outside of the bilayer where they can be touching water-the nonpolar tails are hydrophobic and don't want to touch water, so they arrange themselves on the inside of the bilayer where the heads are between them and water

New cards
71

transport proteins

Transports bigger things into the cell (glucose, water) Glucose needs a glut and water needs an aquaphorin.

New cards
72

what can freely go in and out of a cell membrane

gasses

New cards
73

active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

New cards
74

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

New cards
75

What is homeostasis?

water moving in and out of cells.

New cards
76

common elements of living things

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur

New cards
77

What are monomers?

a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

New cards
78

What is a polymer?

long chain of monomers

New cards
79

What are the 4 macromolecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

New cards
80

water cycle

water stays water during the entire cycle, but gets reused in different ways.

New cards
81

oxygen is considered a what of photosynthesis.

biproduct

New cards
82

which stage of photosynthesis comes first?

Light dependent

New cards
83

What do you need for the light dependent photosynthesis reaction

water, energy, sun

New cards
84

What does the light dependent photosynthesis phase make?

oxygen, ATP, NADPH

New cards
85

What does the light independent reaction need?

ATP, NADPH, CO2

New cards
86

What does the light independent reaction make?

glucose

New cards
87

What is aerobic respiration?

Respiration with oxygen

New cards
88

What is anaerobic respiration?

respiration without oxygen

New cards
89

what are the three parts of the cell theory?

Cells come from other cells, a cell is the basic unit of life, all living things are made of cells

New cards
90

Jansen

invented the first microscope

New cards
91

What type of cell has a cell wall?

plant cell

New cards
92

what cell is the vacuole in?

plant

New cards
93

examples of biotic

plants and animals

New cards
94

Examples of abiotic factors

water, soil, light , minerals, wind, air, temperature, pollution, etc.

New cards
95

What is osmosis?

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Diffusion of just water

New cards
96

What is diffusion?

The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

New cards
97

Hypotonic

Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

New cards
98

Hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

New cards
99

Isotonic

when the concentration of two solutions is the same

New cards
100

Does water move towards hypertonic enviorments or hypotonic enviornments?

Hypertonic

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20369 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(232)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31832 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(63)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard114 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard111 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)