AP Lang & Comp Terminology

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Ab Ovo

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119 Terms

1

Ab Ovo

from the beginning

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ad hominem

faulty argument based on the failing of an adversary (opponent) rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack

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allegory

The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning

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Alliteration

repetition of consonant sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words

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allusion

A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art

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ambiguity

The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.

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Amplification

involves repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in order to emphasize what might otherwise be passed over.

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Analogy

A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them

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Anadiplosis

("doubling back") the rhetorical repetition of one or several words; specifically, repetition of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of the next.

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anaphora

the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or Lines. (ex. we shall… we shall… we shall…)

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antecedent

The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.

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antistrophe

(Also called epistrophe) repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.

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antithesis

Opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction.

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aphorism

A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.

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aporia

Expression of doubt (often feigned) by which a speaker appears uncertain as to what he should think, say, or do.

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aposiopesis

A form of ellipse by which a speaker comes to an abrupt halt, seemingly overcome by passion (fear, excitement, etc.) or modesty.apo

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apostrophe

A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.

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archaism

use of an older or obsolete form.

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19

assonance

repetition of the same vowel sound in words close to each other

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asyndeton

lack of conjunctions (FANBOYS) between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.

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atmosphere

The emotional nod created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described.

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22

Bandwagon

A logical fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too.

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caricature

A verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person’s distinctive physical features or other characteristics.

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catachresis

The misuse or strained use of words, as in a mixed metaphor, occurring either in error or for rhetorical effect. Examples: Mow the beard and shave the grass.

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chiasmus

Also called "reverse parallelism," since the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order.

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circular argumentation

An argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove. (Also known as begging the question)

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clause

A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.

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Colloquial/colloquialism

The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing.

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commoratio

The repetition of a point made several times using different words.

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complementizer

A word (such as that or if) used to introduce a dependent clause

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compounding

In linguistics, the combining of two or more words to create a new word.

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conceit

A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.

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concession

An admission in an argument that the opposing side has points; to grant, allow or yield to a point.

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conjunction

The part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, or clauses

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connotation

The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning.

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Declarative sentence

A sentence in the form of a statement (in contrast to an interrogative,imperative, or exclamatory sentence)

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Deduction

The method of reasoning from the general to the specific.

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Denotation

The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.

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diacope

Figure of repetition in the same word or phrase occurs on either side of an intervening word or phrase

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Diction

Related to style, diction refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.

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Didactic

From the Greek, didactic literally means “teaching.”

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Dirimens Copulatio

Mentioning a balancing or opposing fact to prevent the argument from being one-sided or unqualified.

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Distinctio

An explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.

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Doxa

In classical rhetoric, the domain of opinion, belief, or probable knowledge-in contrast to episteme, the domain of certainty or true knowledge

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Ellipses

set of three periods ( ... ) indicating an omission of a word, phrase, or clause from a quoted passage.

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Enallage

Intentionally misusing grammar to characterize a speaker or create a memorable phrase.

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Encomium

A tribute or eulogy in prose or verse glorifying people, events, objects or ideas.

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Enumeratio

Figure of amplification in which a subject is divided into constituent parts or details, and may include a listing of causes, effects, problems, solutions, conditions, and consequences; the listing or detailing of the parts of something.

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49

Either/or fallacy

An error in logic when one gives only two choices and one choice is not palatable

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Epigraph

the use of a quote at the beginning of a piece of rhetoric that hints at its theme.

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Epimone

Frequent repetition of a phrase or question, dwelling on a point.

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Episteme

In classical rhetoric, the domain of true knowledge

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Epizeuxis

A rhetorical term for repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis, usually with no words in between.

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Ethos

A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility

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Euphemism

From the Greek for “good speech,” a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept.

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Expletive

Figure of emphasis in which a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal speech.

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Extended metaphor

A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.

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False authority

A fallacy in which the rhetor attempts to persuade his or her audience by using well-respected famous names of people rather than evidence or proof.

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Figurative language

Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.

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Figure of Speech

A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things.

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fragment

An incomplete sentence; A complete sentence must have an independent clause as its base.

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Generic conventions

This term describes traditions for each genre.

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genre

The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.

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gerund

A noun formed from a verb. The verb functioning as a noun always ends with –ing.

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Guilt by association

A fallacy where one attempts to discredit an idea or concept based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it.

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Hasty generalization

A fallacy in which a conclusion is drawn from insufficient evidence (too small of a sample to draw a justifiable conclusion)

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Homily

This term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.

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Hyperbole

A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement

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Hypophora

Figure of reasoning in which one or more questions is/are asked and then answered, often at length, by one and the same speaker; raising and responding to one's own question(s).

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Illocutionary force

The speaker’s intention when he or she delivers an utterance

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Imagery

The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions

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Imperative sentence

 type of sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or command.

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Induction

A method of reasoning that moves from specific instances to a general conclusion (contrast with deduction)

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Inference/infer

To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.

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Infinitive Phrase

 starts with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers.

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Interrogative sentence

A type of sentence that asks a question (contrast to declarative or imperative sentences)

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Invective

an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

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Irony/ironic

The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true.

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79

Juxtaposition

the “side by side” comparison of two or more objects or ideals for the purpose of highlighting similarities or differences.

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80

Kenning

a metaphoric compound word or phrase used as a synonym for a common noun.

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81

Litote

a form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite

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Logos

Rhetorical appeals based on logic or reasoning.

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Metabasis

consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow.

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Metaphor

comparison of seemingly unlike things (not using like)

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Metonymy

name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.

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mood

The prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.

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Narrative

telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

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Nonce word

A word coined or used for a special occasion

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Onomatopoeia

natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.

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Oxymoron

wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox

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paradox

A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.

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Parallelism

Grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. Repetition of a grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase.

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Parody

A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.

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Pathos

An emotional appeal used in rhetoric

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Pedantic

An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.

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Periodic sentence (period)

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