ICP Final

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110 Terms

1

Ca

calcium

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2

Ti

Titanium

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3

Zn

Zinc

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4

Hg

Mercury

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5

Ne

Neon

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6

Na

Sodium

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7

K

Potassium

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8

Fe

Iron

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9

Cu

Copper

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10

Ag

Silver

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11

Sn

Tin

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12

Sb

Antimony

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13

Pb

Lead

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14

W

Tungsten

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15

Al

Aluminum

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16

C

Carbon

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17

Cl

Chlorine

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18

H

Hydrogen

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19

Mg

Magnesium

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20

N

Nitrogen

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21

O

Oxygen

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22

Si

Silicon

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23

He

Helium

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24

F

Fluorine

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25

Br

Bromine

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26

P

Phosphorus

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27

S

Sulfur

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28

I

Iodine

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29

Au

Gold

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30

Li

Lithium

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31

Molecule

smallest particle of a compound (or gaseous element) that still has the chemical properties of that substance

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32

Diatomic Elements

N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, H

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33

Triatomic Element

Ozone (Oxygen)

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34

Compounds

2 or more elements chemically combined

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35

Octet rule

8 valence electrons

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36

How do atoms achieve stability

Gain, lose, or share electrons

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37

Metallic bonds

Sea of Valence e-

only metals

alloys

shiny, luster

able to conduct heat and electricity

Very high melting point

malleable and ductile

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38

Ionic Compounds

Metal and nonmetal

cation attracted to ion

crystal or powder

3d lattice structure

brittle

high melting point

doesn’t conduct electricity

electrons are transferred

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39

Covalent bond (molecular compound)

nonmetals only

between nuclei and a shared pair of e-

liquid or gas

low melting point

doesn’t conduct heat or electricity well

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40

oxidation number

combining ability of an atom

number of e- that are shared or exchanged

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41

transition metals and 14

elements with more than one oxidation number

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42

polyatomic ion

a group of covalently bonded atoms that act together like one as a group

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43
term image

ammonium

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44
term image

nitrate

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45
term image

acetate

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46
term image

chlorate

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47
term image

hydroxide

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48
term image

sulfate

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49
term image

carbonate

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50
term image

phosphate

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51

Synthesis reaction

2 or more simple substances combine to form 1 more complex substance

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52

decomposition reaction

1 substance that breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances

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53

single displacement reaction

an element displaces an element in a compound

wallflower example

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54

double displacement reaction

the positive part of one compound combines with the negative part of another compound

AB+CD=AD+CB

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55

aqueous solution

anything dissolved in water

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56

solubility

ability to dissolve

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57

motion is relative

it depends on where you are observing from

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58

frame of reference

a point or object that you assume is not moving

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59

earth

most common point of reference

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60

scalar

quantity that has magnitude

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61

vector

quantity that measures both magnitude AND direction

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62

descriptors for motion

position

distance

displacement

speed

velocity

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63

position (motion)

location of an object (described by reference point)

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64

distance

length traveled or separation between 2 points (scalar quantity)

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65

speed

how fast an object moves (time rate of change in position)(scalar)

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66

velocity

speed in a given direction (vector)

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67

acceleration

the time rate of change in velocity

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68

forces

a push or pull that one object exerts on another object

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69

net forces

combination of multiple forces

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70

friction

force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are touching

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71

gravity

the force of attraction between any 2 objects in the universe

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72

Newton’s First Law

(Law Of Inertia) an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with constant velocity unless acted upon by a net force

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73

inertia

a physical property of matter that describes resistance to changes in motion

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74

Newton’s Second Law

(Law of Acceleration) the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the unbalanced force acting upon it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object

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75

freefall

the motion of an object when the only force acting on it is gravity

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76

projectile

object that you throw or shoot

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77

projectile shape

parabola

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78

Newton’s third law

when one object exerts a force on a second object, then the second exerts an equal sized force in the opposite direction back on the first object

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79

Law of conservation of momentum

momentum before the collision is the same as momentum after the collision

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80

elastic collision

objects bounce off

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81

work

a transfer of energy as a result of motion

must be in same direction

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82

power

how fast the work is done

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83

energy

the ability to do work and the ability to cause a change in itself or its environment

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84

Kinetic energy (KE)

energy in the form of motion

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85

Potential energy (PE)

energy due to position or condition

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86

Thermal energy

total energy of the particles that make up a substance

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87

temperature

average KE of the particles that make up a substance

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88

Thermometer

tool filled with liquid that expands when heated

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89

heat

transfer of energy from an object at a high temp to one at a low temp

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90

Specific heat

amount of E needed to change the temp of a given mass of any substance

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91

wave

a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy (not matter)

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92

medium

the matter that the wave travels through

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93

mechanical waves

must have a medium

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94

electromagnetic waves

do not need a medium

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95

transverse wave

the particles of a medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the wave

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96

longitudinal/ compressional wave

the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave

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97

wavelength

distance from a point on a wave to the same point on the next wave

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98

amplitude

distance from rest position to crest or trough

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99

frequency

number of waves to pass a point in one second

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100

period

the time for 1 wave to pass a given point

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