A&P EXAM 2

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T or F: Blood flow through all the arteries combined equals the blood flow through all the arterioles combined

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Biology

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1

T or F: Blood flow through all the arteries combined equals the blood flow through all the arterioles combined

True

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2

T or F: the higher the resistance downstream, the higher the pressure upstream

true

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3

Chronic aerobic exercise

a. decreases arterial compliance

b. increases arterial compliance

increases arterial compliance

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4

Which of the following statements is/are true?

a. compliance of an elastic structure determines the pressure in that structure

b. pressure in an elastic structure determines the compliance of that structure

c. volume of substance in an elastic structure determines the compliance of that structure

d. volume of substance in an elastic structure determines the pressure in that structure

a. compliance of an elastic structure determines the pressure in that structure

d. volume of substance in an elastic structure determines the pressure in that structure

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5

what term means a vessel increased in diameter?

vasodilation

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6

what term means a vessel decreased in diameter?

vasoconstriction

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7

T or F: Blocking all the adrenergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle would cause blood pressure to fall to levels unconducive to life.

true

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8

Angiotensin II acts on _________receptors on vascular smooth muscle.

a. AT1

b. AT2

AT1

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9

Sympathetic withdrawal generally causes

a. Vasoconstriction

b. Vasodilation

Vasodilation

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10

Vasopressin acts on _________receptors on vascular smooth muscle.

a. V1

b. V2

V1

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11

The vasoconstriction in the skin that occurs when you are cold is primarily due to

a. Endocrine factors

b. Local factors

c. Nervous factors

nervous factors

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12

________________________ glands secrete to the outside of the body.

exocrine

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13

T or F: The driving force for flow from the heart to the capillaries is the same as the driving force for flow from the capillaries back to the heart.

false

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14

T or F: Venous valves are present in the large veins in the torso.

false

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15

Given the following, what is the net filtration pressure?

Hydrostatic pressure in the capillary = 25 mmHg Hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium = normal

Oncotic pressure in the capillary = 30 mmHg

Oncotic pressure in the interstitium = 5 mmHg

0

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16

In the above example, there would be

a. Net absorption

b. Net filtration

c. Neither filtration nor absorption

Neither filtration nor absorption

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17

in most capillaries, everything in the plasma can pass through fenestrae into the interstitium except _________________________

PROTEINS

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18

What word means transport of fluid across the cell in vesicles?

transcytosis

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19

Which vessels can change their resistance the most?

capillaries

arteries

arterioles

venules

veins

arterioles

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20

Which vessels determine the blood flow to a particular organ?

venules

veins

capillaries

arterioles

arteries

arterioles

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21

The _______________________________, the greater the vascular tone.

higher the sacroplasmic sodium

lower the sarcoplasmic sodium

higher the sarcoplasmic calcium

lower the sarcoplasmic chloride

higher the sarcoplasmic potassium

lower the sarcoplasmic calcium

higher the sarcoplasmic chloride

lower the sarcoplasmic potassium

higher the sarcoplasmic calcium

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22

Blood pressure is pulsatile in at least some (select all that apply)

arteries

veins

venules

arterioles

capillaries

arteries

arterioles

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23

When compliance is higher (select all that apply)

diastolic pressure is lower

systolic pressure is higher

diastolic pressure is higher

mean arterial pressure is lower

mean arterial pressure is higher

systolic pressure is lower

diastolic pressure is higher

systolic pressure is lower

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24

Which three organs or types of organs have the largest changes in metabolic rate?

spleen

heart

lymph nodes

kidneys

skeletal muscles

glands

liver

digestive tract organs

heart

skeletal muscle

glands

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25

The myogenic response is most well developed in which four of the following organs or types of organs?

glands

spleen

digestive tract organs

skeletal muscle

kidneys

liver

lymph nodes

heart

spleen

digestive tract organs

kidneys

liver

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26

Which adrenergic receptor in on post-synaptic vascular smooth muscle?

beta-1

beta-3

alpha-2

beta-2

alpha-1

alpha-1

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27

What type of receptor is the vasopressin receptor on vascular smooth muscle?

Gq protein-coupled receptor

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28

What type of receptor is the angiotensin II receptor on vascular smooth muscle?

Gq protein-coupled receptor

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29

Resistance to blood flow is greater in the

veins

arteries

arteries

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30

In normal physiology, filtration occurs out of

veins

arterioles

venules

arteries

capillaries

capillaries

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31

The slowest blood flow is through

venules

arteries

veins

arterioles

capillaries

capillaries

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32

Large proteins can pass through capillary fenestrae in

the liver

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33

___________________ have valves that allow only one-way blood flow. (select all that apply)

venules

veins

arterioles

arteries

capillaries

veins

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34

An increase in mean arterial pressure will ___________________ the frequency of action potentials in the baroreceptor afferents.

increase

decrease

increase

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35

Sympathetic activity to venous smooth muscle causes

Venoconstriction and increased vascular compliance

Venodilation and decreased vascular compliance

Venodilation and increased vascular compliance

Venoconstriction and decreased vascular compliance

Venoconstriction and decreased vascular compliance

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36

When total peripheral resistance changes it is because the total resistance in all the systemic ________________________ changed.

capillaries

veins

arterioles

arteries

venules

arterioles

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37

At any given time, most of the blood in your body is in the

heart

systemic veins

systemic capillaries

systemic arterioles

pulmonary circulation

systemic arteries

systemic veins

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38

Which of the following is the main controller of venous vascular tone?

circulating angiotensin II

endothelin-1 from endothelial cells

the sympathetic nervous system

nitric oxide from endothelial cells

prostacyclin from endothelial cells

circulating vasopressin

the sympathetic nervous system

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39

T or F: Increasing heart rate without changing venous return would increase cardiac output.

false

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40

Which nerve carries baroreceptor afferents from the carotid sinus?

glossopharyngeal nerve

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41

Which nerve carries baroreceptor afferents from the aortic arch?

vagus nerve

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42

Which nerve carries parasympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons to the heart?

vagus nerve

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43

What is the primary cardiovascular variable that the body works to maintain constant?

mean arterial pressure

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44

What is the name for the short-term negative feedback reflex that controls mean arterial pressure?

baroreceptor reflex

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45

T or F: The compliance of the arteries is very volatile (changes often)

false

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46

The higher the compliance of an elastic structure the

Higher the elastic recoil of the structure

Lower the elastic recoil of the structure

Lower the elastic recoil of the structure

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47

After about 50 years of age, arterial compliance tends to

increase

decrease

decrease

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48

The blood flow through one arteriole is _______ the flow through one artery

slower than

faster than

same as

slower than

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49

When vascular smooth muscle contracts you get

vasoconstriction

vasodilation

vasoconstriction

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50

Vasodilation can be triggered by

decreased osmolarity

increased osmolarity

Increased osmolarity

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51

The myogenic response is part of (select all that apply)

active hyperemia

flow autoregulation

reactive hyperemia

response to injury

flow autoregulation

reactive hyperemia

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52

In which of the following mechanisms does a decrease in oxygen trigger vasodilation? (select all that apply)

active hyperemia

flow autoregulation

reactive hyperemia

response to injury

active hyperemia

flow autoregulation

reactive hyperemia

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53

What type of receptor is the a1 adrenergic receptor?

Gi protein-coupled receptor

Gq protein-coupled receptor

Gs protein-coupled receptor

Ion-channel receptor

Gq protein-coupled receptor

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54

Increasing the stretch on an arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cell would tend to cause

increased calcium in the cell

decreased calcium in the cell

increased calcium in the cell

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55

Which branch of the nervous system innervates the vasculature?

parasympathetic

sympathetic

somatic

sympathetic

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56

T or F: There is no sympathetic activity to the vasculature at rest

false

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57

T or F: nitric oxide is only produced when endothelial cells are stressed

false

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58

T or F: Prostacyclin is only produced when endothelial cells are stressed

true

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59

T or F: the three primary hormones to affect vascular smooth muscle can all cause vasoconstriction

true

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60

T or F: Most capillaries have water-filled gaps between the endothelial cells

true

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61

T or F: precapillary sphincters can contract enough to completely close-off a capillary

true

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62

Precapillary sphincters contract when

Oxygen levels are high and metabolite levels are low

Oxygen levels are low and metabolite levels are high

Oxygen levels are high and metabolite levels are low

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63

In most capillaries, nutrient, gas and waste product exchange across capillaries is primarily by

bulk flow

diffusion

mediated transport

vesicle transport

diffusion

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64

The brain cannot limit the movement of ______ across capillary walls

hydrophilic substances

lipophilic substances

lipophilic substances

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65

T or F: there is more than three times more interstitial fluid in the body than plasma in the body

true

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66

The bulk flow of interstitial fluid into a capillary is called

absorption

filtration

absorption

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67

Water moves from

High osmotic pressure to low osmotic pressure

Low osmotic pressure to high osmotic pressure

Low osmotic pressure to high osmotic pressure

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68

Normally the protein concentration in the plasma is________ the protein concentration in the interstitial fluid

higher than

lower than

the same as

higher than

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69

T or F: Normally, all of the fluid that filters out of the arterial side of a capillary is absorbed on the venous side

false

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70

Which are more compliant?

arteries

veins

veins

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71

T or F: The skeletal muscle pump only works in vein with valves

true

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72

When muscles contract, the pressure in the veins that run through that muscle

decreases

increases

is not affected

increases

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73

T or F: If some arterioles vasodilate and some vasoconstrict, mean arterial pressure may stay the same

true

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74

Venous return increases with

inspiration

expiration

inspiration

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75

T or F: venous return increases if you breathe deeper

true

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76

Increasing heart rate tends to _______ stroke volume

decrease

not affect

increase

decrease

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77

Vasodilation in some arterioles with no change in the rest of the arterioles will lead to _____ MAP

decreased

no change in

increased

decreased

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78

Total pulmonary vascular resistance is ________ total peripheral resistance

less than

more than

the same as

less than

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79

Increasing the hematocrit would tend to ______ MAP

decrease

increase

increase

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80

Which of the following would increase following a decrease in mean arterial pressure? (select all that apply)

baroreceptor afferent firing rate

sympathetic activity

parasympathetic activity

sympathetic activity

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81

A healthy, non-pregnant person has a ______ baroreceptor reflex gain

high

low

high

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82

The baroreceptor reflex works to defend the

normal blood pressure

prevailing blood pressure

prevailing blood pressure

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83

Low pressure baroreceptors are involved in________ reflexes

feed-forward

negative feedback

positive feedback

resetting the set-point

feed-forward

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84

T or F: blood pressure should always be measure clinically at the level of the heart

true

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85

T or F: when you are standing up, more fluids filters out of the blood vessels in your feet than in your hands

true

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86

T or F: in a moderate aerobic exercise, blood flow to the liver and kidney is reduced

false

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87

T or F: blood flow to the brain increases during aerobic exercise

true

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88

T or F: While on a long airline flight or car drive, it is important to contract the muscles in the legs occasionally to prevent blood clot formation.

true

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89

Which of the following is elevated when you are standing compared to when you are lying down? (select all that apply)

Blood pressure at the level of the heart

Parasympathetic activity

Sympathetic activity

Total peripheral resistance

Venous compliance

Blood pressure at the level of the heart

Sympathetic activity

Total peripheral resistance

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90

T or F: In a moderate aerobic exercise, arterioles to the intestines and kidney vasoconstrict.

true

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91

T or F: In an intense aerobic exercise, blood flow to the liver and kidney is reduced.

true

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92

Which of the following variable would decrease in a moderate exercise? (select all that apply)

diastolic pressure

mean arterial pressure

cardiac output

systolic pressure

none of these variable would decrease

heart rate

total peripheral resistance

venous return

stroke volume

total peripheral resistance

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93

Which of the following variable would increase in a moderate exercise? (select all that apply)

diastolic pressure

mean arterial pressure

cardiac output

systolic pressure

none of these variable would decrease

heart rate

total peripheral resistance

venous return

stroke volume

Heart rate

systolic pressure

venous return

stroke volume

mean arterial pressure

cardiac output

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94

What does the PQ interval tell you?

The length of the action potential in the atria

The time it takes for both ventricles to completely depolarize

The time it takes for the action potential to travel from the SA node to the bundles of His

The time it takes for the both atria to completely depolarize

The interval between beats

The length of the action potential in the ventricle

The time it takes for the action potential to travel from the SA node to the bundles of His

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95

What does the QRS interval tell you?

The interval between beats

The length of the action potential in the ventricle

The length of the action potential in the atria

The time it takes for both ventricles to completely depolarize

The time it takes for the action potential to travel from the SA node to the bundles of His

The time it takes for the both atria to completely depolarize

The time it takes for both ventricles to completely depolarize

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96

What does the QT interval tell you?

The time it takes for the action potential to travel from the SA node to the bundles of His

The length of the action potential in the ventricle

The time it takes for the both atria to completely depolarize

The time it takes for both ventricles to completely depolarize

The length of the action potential in the atria

The interval between beats

The length of the action potential in the ventricle

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97

What does the RR interval tell you?

The interval between beats

The length of the action potential in the atria

The time it takes for the both atria to completely depolarize

The time it takes for both ventricles to completely depolarize

The length of the action potential in the ventricle

The time it takes for the action potential to travel from the SA node to the bundles of His

The interval between beats

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98

Diving in cold water should

increase heart rate

decrease heart rate

decrease heart rate

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99

A deep inspiration should cause the mean electrical axis to_______________聽 because the apex of the heart has moved to the _________.

increase, left

decrease, left

increase, right

decrease, right

increase, right

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100

The normal mean electrical axis of the heart is to the

right of the body

left of the body

left of the body

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