CMN 326 Final

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Functionality (Music motivations)

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123 Terms

1

Functionality (Music motivations)

intentional use of music to accomplish specific goals in specific situations

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2

U&G Perspective of Music

-appeals to emotions

-fill silence/background noise

-define self or facilitate entry into group

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3

Devotee (type of online listener)

active, strong interest in activity, few social ties

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4

insiders (types of online listeners)

strong personal interest and social ties

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5

tourists (type of online listeners)

no interest or social ties

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6

minglers (type of online listeners)

no interest but strong social ties

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7

types of online listeners

devotees

insiders

tourists

minglers

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8

stan

-combination of stalker and fan

-devoted follower of a celeb

-influence celebs and their decisions

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9

concerns of stan culture

-Group think

-cyberbullying

-privacy

-obsession

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10

Music video concerns

-promotion of drug use

-anti-social content

-sexualization and sex

-body image

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11

anti social content

-violence

-body image

-drugs

-misogyny

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12

effects of sexualized content

-increased objectification

-acceptance of interpersonal violence

-acceptance of token resistance

-disbelief in legitimacy of sexual harassment

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13

body image

- identification with media characters

-social comparison

-body satisfaction

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14

music therapy

-decreases depression, anxiety, dementia, sleep disorders

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15

4 elements of hip hop

rapping

DJing

break dancing

graffiti

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16

music video formatting

storytelling relies on shortcuts (heuristics) and cultural stereotypes (schemata)

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17

schema

pattern or thought of behavior that organizes categories of info

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18

effects of rap music videos

binge drinking

marijuana

negative body image

multiple sexual partners

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19

hedonic perspective of media consumption

-consumption of media entertainment in pursuit of pleasure or amusement

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20

eduaemonic perspective

consumption of media entertainment in search for and to ponder lifes meaning truths and purposes

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21

people who watch TV horror for

entertainment report more positive and negative affect

escape report more cognitive involvement and negative affect

relax report more positive affect

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22

true crime

non fiction investigation into real people, events, and/or crimes

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23

true crime narratives

predator: typically white, middle-aged male

victim: typically a white female with a clean past who appeals to societal beauty standards

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24

hard news

news that treats issue as an ongoing concern and reports events that have occurred within past 24 hrs

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25

soft news

news that touches on human concerns. reports are less tied to time and place

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26

4 characteristics of satire

aggression, play, laughter, judgement

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27

characteristics of violent content in video games

-high rates of violence in video games

-children’s content has more than adults’

-violence includes socially sanctioned and illegal

-violence can also include verbal aggression

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28

racial content ( children)

-almost all heroes are white

-no latina characters

black characters unaffected by pain or physical suffering

-asians associated w martial arts

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29

racial content (adults)

-non white characters associated w athleticism

-non white portrayed as more violent

-white characters engaged in socially sanctioned violence

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30

men in video games

  • 85% characters are male

  • bigger chest, waist and hips

    • hypermasculine characters found mroe in children’s content

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31

women in video games

  • smaller chest, waist and hips

  • minimal clothing

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32

videogame motivations

  • competence

  • autonomy

  • relatedness

  • mastery of controls

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33

competence

video game structure

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34

autonomy

we like freedom of choice

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35

relatedness

social interaction central

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36

mastery of controls

learned ability to effortlessly perform actions in games

feedback and reaction time

hand-eye coordination

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37

video game effects

more aggressive cognitions

more aggressive affect

more aggressive behaviors

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38

difficulties with studying video game violence

-poor aggression operationalization

-confounding variables

-publication bias

-small effect size

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39

catharsis

video games provide an outlet for aggression

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40

video games and pro social content impacts

-increased helping

-decreased aggression

-increased positive affect

-accessibility of pro-social thoughts

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41

avatars

self presentations that facilitate interactions in mediated spaces

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42

identity cue

info abt an individuals traits

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43

proteus affect

ppl conform in behavior and attitude to their avatars characteristics

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44

why do we care about avatars?

-pro social content

-health content

-anti social content

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45

hashjacking

co-opting a dedicated hashtag to promote opposing or irrelevant stance

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46

influencer

someone who posts to social media in exchange for compensation

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47

effects of influencers

  • intentions to interact

  • intentions to recommend

    • intentions to follow advice

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48

political effects of influencers

-influencers simplify politics

-political interest (agenda setting)

-political cynicism - distrust toward political institutions

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49

cancel culture

  • derived from black twitter

  • a form of public boycotting against out of reach figures

  • tool for marginalized groups to speak out against immorality and inequality

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50

slacktivism

all bark, no bite

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51

predictions of news effects

-news coverage emphasizes elements of reality

-news coverage encourages audiences to consider these emphasized elements as applicable and important

-news coverage influences how audiences process reality

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52

news frames and techniques

  • metaphors

  • images

  • cost v reward

    • episodic v thematic

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53

Episodic

highlights personal experiences

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54

thematic

highlights larger social, political, or economic context

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55

impacts of news frames

issue interpretations

causal interpretations

treatment recommendationa

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56

issue interpretations

audience perception of issues, event, or policy

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57

causal interpretations

audience perception of who or what should be held accountable

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58

treatment recommendations

audience perception of how to fix an issue

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59

what gets heavy coverage on the news about political campaigns?

  • major announcements

  • mistakes

  • responses to speeches

  • candidate meeting with important people

    • horse race

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60

appeals in political ads

-fear

-patriotism

-family/affiliation

-testimonials

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61

Social media characteristics

construct profiles

express connections with other users

view connections made by other users

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62

curation

the production, selection, and filtering of news content on social media

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63

5 types of curation

journalistic

strategic

personal

social algorithmic

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64

facebook algorithm

politically interested users report their friends post a lot of polktical content, facebook categorizes these people as politically interested, facebook exposes the politically interested to political content

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65

echo chambers

environment where all info or opinions encountered are the same

  • create distorted perception of reality

    • potential hotbed for misinfo

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66

confirmation bias

we find evidence that agrees with our pre existing beliefs

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67

how to avoid echo chambers

check multiple sources/triangulate

get exposure to alternative perspective

realize your own biases

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68

opinion leaders

individuals with excess social authority for judging or disseminating info

can combat or propagate misinfo

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69

violence

behavior intended to cause physical harm or pain to another individual

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70

blue collar crime

stereotypical crime

drugs

theft

violence

overreported

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71

white collar crime

non-violent crimes

  • corruption

  • fraud

  • money laundering

    • under reported

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72

property crime

taking money or property

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73

violent crime

homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault

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74

fairness doctrine

media must present both sides of an issue equally, regardless of credibility

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75

what inspires fear in young children?

monsters

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76

what inspires fear in elementary school

physical violence

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77

what inspired fear in older children?

abstract concepts (pandemic, nuclear war)

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78

how do young children respond to fear?

physical disengagement (closing eyes)

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79

how do elementary kids respond to fear?

cognitively respond (thats not real)

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80

issues with measuing fear

social desirability

inaccurate self reports

physiological measures imprecise

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81

modeling impacts

training violent reactions

sensitization: pain, fear, disgust

desensitization: relaxed, entertained, comfy

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82

desensitization

gradual reduction in responsiveness to arousal eliciting stimuli as a function of repeated exposure

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83

cultivation- mean world syndrome

  • cognitive bias from repeated exposure to violence

    • perception the world is more dangerous than it truly is

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84

reinforcement of violence

classical conditioning

violence as a solution to issues

repeated violence = desensitization

fits with social cognitive theory

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85

viewer personalities

disposition to violence

emotional arousal levels

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86

who watches violent content?

sensation seekers

empaths

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87

erotica

literary or artistic works with themes of sex and romance

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88

pornography

media content designed with the primary and often exclusive goal of enhancing and eliciting the sexual arousal of viewers

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89

sexual content in media PRIMETIME

increased amount over time

sexual talk is more common than sexual behavior

sexual behavior is more frequent between unmarried than married adults

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90

sexual content in media SOAP OPERAS

contain the most sexual content

more sexual behavior than sexual talk

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91

sexual content in media FILMS

glorify promiscuous behavior and demonize virginity

rarely show safe sex behaviors and comm

consequences tend to be social in nature

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92

effects of sexual content

teaching new behaviors

disinhibition of known behaviors

sex crimes

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93

miller test

does the averge person fidn the matter appeals to be prurient interests?

does the average person find the matter depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way?

does the average person find the matter lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value?

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94

MPAA Film Trailer Ratings

green band: approved for all audiences

yellow band: internet only trailers approved for age appropriate audiences

red band: approved for restricted audiences, only shown before R films

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95

issues with rating system

inequities

vagueness

inconsistencies

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96

trigger hypothesis

exposure will provoke sex crimes

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97

safety valve theory

exposure will satisfy urges to commit sex crimes

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98

concerns with studying porn

informed consent

courtesy stigma

negative exposure effects

legal/financial

logistical

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99

use of porn

sexual enhancement

diversion

substitution

release

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100

affects of porn

arousal

early age of sexual encounter

violent porn exposure=can lead to more sexual aggression

attitudes/beliefs

  • frequency of sex acts

  • porn v reality

    • violent porn consumption is related to rape myth acceptance

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