Biology: Photosynthesis Using Light to Make Food

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Photosynthesis takes place here:

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Biology

9th

132 Terms

1

Photosynthesis takes place here:

the green parts of plants

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2

Chloroplasts are found mainly in the:

mesophyll

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3

This is the tissue of the interior of the leaf:

mesophyll

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4

CO2 and O2 enter and exit the leaf via:

stomata

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5

Microscopic pores on the leaf surface:

stomata

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6

stomata singular

stoma

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7

A typical mesophyll cell has - chloroplasts

30,40

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8
<p>1:</p>

1:

inner membrane

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9

This part of the chloroplast encloses the stroma:

inner membrane

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10
<p>2:</p>

2:

intermembrane space

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11

this part of the chloroplast is the space between the inner and outer membrane:

intermembrane space

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12
<p>3:</p>

3:

outer membrane

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13

this part of the chloroplast is a smooth membrane:

outer membrane

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14
<p>4:</p>

4:

stroma

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15

this part of the chloroplast is a fluid that contains DNA and ribosomes:

stroma

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16
<p>5:</p>

5:

thylakoid

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17

this part of the chloroplast is a flattened, interconnected sac:

thylakoid

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18
<p>6:</p>

6:

lamella

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19

lamella plural:

lamellae

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20

photosynthesis equation:

6CO2 + 6H2O + energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

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21

photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of:

plants, algae, and protists

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22

the two steps of photosynthesis:

light reactions and the calvin cycle

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23

chloroplasts contain the green pigment:

chlorophyll

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24

light reactions convert solar energy into:

chemical energy which is stored as ATP and NADPH

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25

light reactions do not produce:

sugar

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26

light is a form of ______ energy

electromagnetic

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27

light travels in:

electromagnetic waves

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28
<p>1:</p>

1:

wavelength

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29
<p>2:</p>

2:

trough

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30
<p>3:</p>

3:

wave height

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31
<p>4:</p>

4:

crest

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32

frequency

number of cycles per unit time

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33

electromagnetic waves are arranged by wavelengths and frequencies in an:

electromagnetic spectrum

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34

electromagnetic spectrum order:

gamma rays, x-rays, uv, visible light, infrared, micro-waves, radio waves

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35

Visible light wavelengths:

380nm-750nm

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36

particles containing electromagnetic radiation:

photons

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37

primary colors of white light:

red, blue, green

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38

secondary colors of white light:

magenta, yellow, cyan

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39

substances that absorb visible light:

pigments

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40

when a pigment reflects a color, that is:

the color we see

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41

an instrument that measures the ability of a pigment to absorb various wavelengths:

spectrophotometer

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42

chlorophyll molecules absorb:

violet-blue and red light

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43

chlorophyll a is ____, while chlorophyll b is _____.

blue-green, yellow-green

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44

these pigments absorb excess light to protect organisms:

carotenoids

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45

What types of organisms produce the biosphere's food supply?

producers and autotrophs

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46

In a rosebush, chlorophyll is located in _____.

thylakoids

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47

\n Chlorophyll molecules are in which part of the chloroplast?

grana

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48

The source of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis has been identified through experiments using radioactive tracers. The oxygen comes from _____.

water

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49

In photosynthesis, what is the fate of the oxygen atoms present in CO2? They end up __________.

in sugar and water

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50

In an experiment, a plant was given ____ containing radioactive O, and the radioactive oxygen atoms were used to make sugar.

carbon dioxide

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51

In photosynthesis, plants use carbon from ____ to make sugar and other organic molecules

carbon dioxide

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52

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are similar in that both involve _____.

redox reactions

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53

The photosynthetic event known as the Calvin cycle occurs in the _____

stroma

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54

The "photo-" part of the word "photosynthesis" refers to _________, whereas "-synthesis" refers to __________.

light reactions, carbon fixation

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55

The most important role of pigments in photosynthesis is to _____.

capture light

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56

Which one of the following colors is most strongly transmitted by chlorophyll?

green

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57

The reaction center, antenna molecules, and primary electron acceptors that cluster in the thylakoid membrane form which structure?

photosystem

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58

The synthesis of glucose by photosynthesis is an endergonic process. The source of the energy for the excited electrons is _____.

light

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59

The light reactions of photosynthesis generate high-energy electrons, which end up in ____. The light reactions also produce ____ and ____.

NADPH, ATP, oxygen

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60

Where do the electrons needed by photosystem II originate?

water

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61

During photosynthesis in chloroplasts, O2 is produced from __________ via a series of reactions associated with __________.

water, photosystem II

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62

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts _____.

use a H+ gradiant to produce ATP

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63

components of the light reactions are found where?

thylakoid membranes

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64

components of light reactions:

2 photosystems, 2 electron transport chains, ATP synthase

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65
<p>1:</p>

1:

photon

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66
<p>2:</p>

2:

light-harvesting complexes

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67
<p>3:</p>

3:

reaction center

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68
<p>4:</p>

4:

primary electron acceptor

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69
<p>5:</p>

5:

pigment

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70
<p>6:</p>

6:

special chlorophyll a molecules

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71

the reaction center includes:

2 special chlorophyll a molecules, primary electron acceptor, light-harvesting complexes

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72

first step of events in photosystem:

photon hits pigments, which excites them

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73

photosystem II has pigment ___, while photosystem I has pigment ______

680, 700

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74

two possible routes of electron flow in light reactions:

cyclic and noncyclic

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75

non cyclic electron flow path:

water, PSII, Pq, Cytochrome complex, Pc, PSI, Fd, NADP+ reductase, NADPH

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76

movement of electrons through the electron transport chains are _____ reactions

exergonic

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77

where do H+ ions travel during electron flow?

inside the thylakoid space

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78

after H+ ions move against the concentration gradient, where do they travel:

to the stroma via ATP synthase

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79
<p>is this noncyclic or cyclic?</p>

is this noncyclic or cyclic?

noncyclic

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80

NADP+ full name:

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

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81

reduced form of NADP+

NADPH

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82

NADP+ is just NAD+ with an extra ______

phosphate group

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83

cyclic electron flow path:

PSI, Fd, Cytochrome complex, Pc, PSI

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84

non cyclic electron flow produces __ and __, but cyclic electron flow produces _____

NADPH, ATP, ATP

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85

when the chloroplast has an excess of NADPH, what electron flow does it shift to?

cyclic electron flow

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86

calvin cycle intermediates:

CO2, short-lived intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 1,3-biphosphoglycerate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, ribulose biphosphate

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87

the calvin cycle occurs in the:

stroma

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88

three phases of calvin cycle:

carbon fixation, reduction, regeneration of RuBP

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89

RuBP stands for:

ribulose biphosphate

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90

this enzyme combines CO2 with RuBP:

rubisco

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91

when 3-phosphoglycerate phosphorylates to become 1,3-biphosphoglycerate, where does it get the phosphate groups from?

6 ATP

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92

when 1,3-biphosphoglycerate is reduced to become G3P, where does it get the electrons from?

6 NADPH

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93

how many molecules of G3P exit the cycle to be used by the cell?

1

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94

what happens to the other G3P molecules?

regenerated to become RuBP

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95

when G3P is rearranged to become RuBP, where does it get the energy from?

3 ATP

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96

calvin cycle equation:

3CO2 + 6NADPH + 9ATP -> G3P + 6NADP+ + 9ADP

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97

photorespiration occurs in order to preserve what?

water

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98

the enzyme rubisco can bind with these two molecules:

CO2 and O2

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99

in photorespiration, RuBP is split into __ and __. ____ leaves the chloroplast and is broken down into ___

3-phosphoglycerate, 2C, 2C, CO2

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100

photorespiration consumes ___ and ___, making it wasteful.

ATP, sugar

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