Juvenile Justice Final

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The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called…

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1

The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called…

A. Differential Association.

B. Labeling Theory.

C. Life-course theory.

D. Conflict theory.

E. Developmental theories.

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2

The Gluecks’ research focused on as a forerunner of a delinquent career.

A. Economic conditions.

B. Early onset of delinquency.

C. School failure.

D. Abuse and neglect.

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3

This developmental theory posties that there is more than one path to a delinquent career.

A. Trajectory Theory.

B. Latent Trait Theory.

C. Life-course Theory.

D. General Theory of Crime.

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4

A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as delinquency is called…

A. Problem behavior syndrome.

B. Delinquency syndrome.

C. Sociopath behavior.

D. Psychopath behavior.

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5

The to delinquent deviance begins at an early age with stubborn behavior, which leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.

A. Covert pathway.

B. Overt pathway.

C. Authority conflict pathway.

D. Corrected behavior pathway.

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6

The to a delinquent career begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud.

A. Covert pathway.

B. Overt pathway.

C. Authority conflict pathway.

D. Corrected behavior pathway.

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7

An offender who follows the most common delinquent trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes is called a/an…

A. Conflicted offender.

B. Life-course persister.

C. Latent criminal.

D. Adolescent-limited.

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8

Gaining employment, getting married, or joining the military create informal social control mechanisms that limit delinquent behavior opportunities; these events are considered to be according to Sampson and Laub.

A. Turning points.

B. Cumulative disadvantage.

C. Social capital.

D. Impulsivity.

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9

refers to the propensity to commit crime that profoundly and permanently disrupts normal socialization over the life course.

A. State dependence.

B. Cumulative disadvantages.

C. Crime patterns.

D. Deteriorating bonds.

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10

When a person has positive relations with individuals and institutions, as in a successful marriage or career, tht support is sometimes referred to as….

A. Social support.

B. Social capital.

C. Encouragement.

D. Positive reinforcement.

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11

theories incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior.

A. Latent.

B. Behavioral.

C. Integrated.

D. Age-graded.

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12

Defective intelligence, impulsive personality, genetic abnormalities, and the physical chemical functioning of the brain are all examples of a…

A. Latent trait.

B. Characteristic pattern.

C. Personality disorder.

D. Neurosis.

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13

Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi developed the theory.

A. Labeling.

B. Trajectory.

C. General theory of crime.

D. Differential association.

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14

Gottfredson and Hirschi attribute the tendency to commit delinquent acts to a person’s…

A. Low level of self-control.

B. Educational level.

C. Social-emotional development.

D. Full scale IQ.

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15

Gottfredson and Hirschi traced the root cause of low levels of self-control to…

A. Poor academic achievement.

B. Inadequate diet.

C. Inadequate childrearing practices.

D. Neglect and abuse.

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16

On average, _____ juvenile delinquency cases are adjudicated annually.

A. 875,000

B. 1 million

C. 1.2 million

D. 1.7 million

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17

A _____ refers to a court appointed individual who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child’s welfare.

a. Court appointed defense attorney

b. Social worker

c. Social attorney

d. Guardian ad litem

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18

The typical status offense detainee is a female charged with _____.

a. Curfew violation

b. Indecent exposure

c. Liquor law violation

d. Tobacco law violation

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19

The juvenile court did not include a prosecutor in its first 60 years of existence because _____.

a. The court followed a social service helping model

b. There was no constitutional right to legal counsel, so a prosecutor was unnecessary

c. The judge acted as the prosecutor

d. The child was always presumed guilty.

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20

The typical delinquent detainee is a _____.

a. Male between the ages of 13 and 15, charged with a property crime

b. Female, under the age of 16, who is a runaway

c. Male, over the age of 16, charged with a violent crime

d. Female, over the age of 16, charged with substance abuse

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21

In a more legalistic juvenile court, almost all jurisdictions require by law that a ___ be present in the juvenile court.

a. Sheriff

b. Court counselor

c. Social worker

d. Prosecutor

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22

What is the purpose of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974?

a. It prohibits the placement of status offenders in secure detention facilities.

b. It mandates that juveniles must have a hearing within 24 hours of placement at a

secure detention facility.

c. It mandates that any juvenile placed at a secure detention facility must have an

attorney appointed to represent him or her.

d. It provides for the mandatory education and health care of the youth while in the

detention facility.

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23

Waivers are attractive to _____ because they are consistent with the get-tough policy that is currently popular.

a. Conservatives

b. Juvenile judges

c. Prosecutors

d. Liberals

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24

The formal complaint that initiates judicial actions against a juvenile charged with delinquency or a status offense is called the _____.

a. Complaint

b. Indictment

c. Petition

d. Trial information

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25

The _____ gives the juvenile the opportunity to have the case brought before a reviewing court after it has been heard in juvenile or Family Court.

a. Final order

b. Adjudication review committee

c. Writ of habeas corpus

d. Appellate process

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26

The hearing held in juvenile court to determine the merits of the petition claiming that a child is either a delinquent youth or in need of court supervision is referred to as _____.

a. Adjudication

b. Disposition

c. Transfer

d. Review

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27

_____ refers to the hearing held in juvenile court to determine the “sentence” of the juvenile.

a. Adjudication

b. Disposition

c. Transfer

d. Review

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28

Due process is addressed in the Fifth and _____ Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

a. Fourteenth

b. Second

c. Eighth

d. Fourth

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29

The type of sentence that specifies a fixed term of detention that must be served is referred to as a/an _____ sentence.

a. Indeterminate

b. Mandatory

c. Determinate

d. Individualized

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30

Judges follow the probation department recommendations _____ percent of the time.

a. 25

b. 60

c. 75

d. 90

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31

In _____, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the death penalty for juveniles was unconstitutional.

a. Graham v. Florida

b. In re Gault

c. Atkins v. Virginia

d. Roper v. Simmons

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32

_____ afforded juveniles the right to counsel.

a. In re Gault

b. McKeiver v. Pennsylvania

c. In re Winship

d. Kent v. U.S.

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33

On average, _____ percent of juvenile cases are waived to adult court by the juvenile court each year.

a. Less than 0.5

b. Approximately 5

c. Approximately 10

d. Approximately 15

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34

What is the basic philosophy at the disposition hearing?

a. Dispositions should be made in the best interest of the child.

b. Dispositions should use retribution as the determination of the sentence.

c. Under the doctrine of parens patriae, the parent should choose the ultimate

disposition.

d. Dispositions should only look at the evidence presented at the adjudication hearing

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35

Which of the following sentencing goals, best describes the juvenile justice systems philosophical approach to dealing with adolescent offenders?

A. Retribution

B. Incapacitation

C. Rehabilitation

D. Deterrence

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36

The tendency for youths to reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they become older is called the…

A. Period of intellectual growth

B. Aging-out process

C. Maturation cycle

D. Learning curve

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37

Status offenses refer to…

A. Crimes which affect a person's status in life

B. Violation of probation

C. Illegal actions committed by juveniles that would not be considered illegal if perpetrated by an adult

D. Crimes committed in order to earn membership in a gang

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38

A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is called…

A. Paternalistic

B. Democratic

C. Parens patriae

D. Matriarchal

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39

The Latin phrase parens patriae was first used to refer to the…

A. Role of the father as head of the household

B. Role court in determining who is the father of the child

C. Role of the king as the father of his country

D. Role of parents as absolute rulers over the child

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40

Early English jurisprudence held that children under the age of_____ were legally incapable of committing crimes.

A. 6

B. 7

C. 16

D. 10

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41

Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system were referred to as the…

A. Teachers

B. Do-gooders

C. Moral reformers

D. Child savers

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42

Young people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality are referred to as…

A. At-risk youth

B. Juvenile delinquents

C. Working poor

D. Latch-key youth

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43

Researchers have found that curfew laws along with aggressive curfew and truancy enforcement, appeared to reduce…

A. Shoplifting

B. Prostitution

C. Truancy

D. Violent gang crimes

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44

A waiver is defined as…

A. A judgment made by the juvenile court to imprison a delinquent

B. The dismissal of all charges that have been brought against a juvenile

C. The transferring of legal jurisdiction of juveniles from the juvenile to the adult court

D. The juvenile court equivalent of a guilty plea

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45

Toward the close of the eighteenth century, the work of such philosophers as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Locke launched a new age, the _______________, for childhood and the family.

A. Democratic era

B. Enlightenment

C. Intellectual period

D. Modern age

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46

A philosophical viewpoint that encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to children is called the…

A. Moral reformation

B. Best interest of the child

C. Period of Enlightenment

D. Proper parent philosophy

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47

is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 – 24 in the United States.

A. Substance abuse

B. Homicide

C. Suicide

D. Accidental death

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48

Teenage birthrates have _________ substantially during the past decade.

A. Increased

B. Decreased

C. Remained static

D. None of the above

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49

Most states define "minor child" as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly ___ or ___ years of age.

A. 13 or 14

B. 15 or 16

C. 16 or 17

D. 17 or 18

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50

As a class, adolescents are considered less responsible for their behavior than adults because…

A. Have a tendency to be impulsive

B. Primarily concerned with short-term consequences over long-term consequence

C. Are more susceptible to peer pressure

D. All of the above

E. A and C

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51

The textbook gives several reasons why few child abuse cases were never prosecuted in the early American colonies. Which of the following is not one of those reasons?

A. The acceptable limits of discipline were so high few parents were charged with assault.

B. Large families provided siblings and kinfolk who could help care for children.

C. The law required at least two witnesses of the abuse testify for a conviction.

D. Harsh discipline was accepted in extremely religious households.

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52

Youths involved in multiple serious criminal acts, referred to as ______________________________________, are now recognized as serious social problems

Chronic juvenile delinquents.

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53

In early America laws were passed that required children to obey their parents, these laws were known  \n as…

Stubborn child laws.

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54

Which of the following is a potential problem with self-report surveys?

A. inaccuracies in the reporting

B. misunderstanding the question being asked

C. duplicate answers

D. all of the above are correct

E. a and b are correct

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55

____ refers to the idea that chronic juvenile offenders are likely to continue violating the law as adult.

A. Life cycle of crime

B. Age of onset phenomenon

C. Predictive analysis

D. Continuity of crime

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56

Which of the following is generally true about teenage victimization?

A. committed by individuals known to the victim

B. occurs more frequently during daytime hours compared to adult victims

C. it is intra-racial

D. all of the above

E. b and c

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57

The _____ study is considered the national standard to measure substance abuse trends among American teens.

A. Monitoring the Future

B. Victims for Justice

C. National Crime Victimization

D. National Gang Crime

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58

When the UCR indicates that the murder rate was 5.8 in 2009, this means that almost six people in every _____ were murdered between January 1 and December 31, 2009.

A. 1,000

B. 10,000

C. 100,000

D. One million

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59

Efforts to chart _____ will have a major influence on both theory and policy.

A. Diversion programs involving juveniles

B. Juvenile probation and school failure

C**. Life cycle of crimes and delinquency**

D. Arrest records of juveniles

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60

Juvenile violent crime arrests typically peak at age…

A. 20

B. 16

C. 18

D. 17

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61

To conduct _____ research, researchers manipulate or intervene in the lives of their subjects to see the outcome or the effect of the intervention.  This form of research works to understand the effects of one specific variable on another.

A. Ethnographic

B. Experimental

C. Single-subject

D. Meta-analysis

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62

According to the text, experts rely on what three primary sources of data to find out about the nature and extent of delinquency?

A. Victim surveys, hospital ER reports, official records

B. Official records, self-report surveys, school truancy records

C**. Self-report surveys, victim surveys, official records**

D. Official records, media sources, victim surveys

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63

Chronic juvenile offenders have an _____ percent chance of becoming adult offenders.

A. 80

B. 50

C. 65

D. 75

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64

The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is compiled by the…

A. White House Commission on Crime and Delinquency

B. Federal Bureau of Investigation

C. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

D. Bureau of Justice Statistics

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65

Delinquency rates are correlated with the number of _____ mothers in the population.

A. educated

B. Married

C. Working

D. Unwed

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66

According to the text, a sudden increase in _____ may be an indicator of future increase in the rate of delinquency.

A. Population

B. Bullying

C. Drug use

D. School drop-outs

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67

Which of the following is a Part 1 crime in UCR?

A. petty larceny

B. kidnapping

C. assault and battery

D. All of the above

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68

An advantage that NIBRS has over UCR is…

A. it more effectively utilizes the hierarchal rule

B. it adds Part III crimes in addition to UCR's Part I and Part II crime categories

C. it can track all the crimes that occur within a single incident

D. all of the above

E. none of the above

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69

Based on what we have learned from self-report surveys, the Dark Figure of Crime is substantially ___________________ than what we have known or than what is reported.

Larger

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70

Young girls are much more likely to be the victim of…

A. Bullying

B. Robbery

C. Homicide

D. Sexual assault

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71

Regardless of race, sex, social class, intelligence, or any other social variable, people commit less crime as they age; this is referred to as…

Aging out.

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72

Studies show that_____ adolescents have the highest rate for sexual assault victimization.

A. Native Americans

B. African American

C. Hispanic

D. Asian

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73

Putting unbreakable glass on storefronts is an example of…

A. Target -hardening

B. Conflict theory

C. Specific deterrence

D. Community policing

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74

____ is a personality trait marked by anxiety, tension, and emotional instability.

A. Neuroticism

B. Defiance

C. Impulsiveness

D. Extroversion

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75

____ holds that decisions to violate the law are weighed against possible punishments; to deter crime the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of legal gain.

A. Specific deterrence

B. Biological theory

C. Routine activities

D. Classical criminology

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76

The view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases is called…

A. Environmental theory

B. Darwinism

C. Bioanthropology

D. Biosocial theory

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77

___ theory holds that the more severely young offenders are punished the less likely they are to repeat their illegal acts.

A. Classical

B. Rational choice

C. Specific deterrence

D. General deterrence

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78

The argument that the more severe, certain, and swift the punishment the greater effect it will have is one referred to as…

A. Rehabilitation

B. Retribution

C. Deterrence

D. Incapacitation

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79

The view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with others, or indirectly through media is referred to as…

A. Social learning theory

B. Antisocial personality theory

C. Psychodynamic theory

D. Cognitive behavioral theory

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80

The __________ theory holds that low intelligence is generally determined and inherited.

A. Nurture

B. Nature

C. Psychological

D. Realist

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81

The writings of _________ formed the core of what is referred to today as classical criminology.

A. Travis Hirschi

B. Cesare Lombroso

C. Cesare Beccaria

D. Marcus Felson

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82

____ links delinquency to biological and psychological characteristics that control human development.

A. Choice theory

B. Trait theory

C. Evolution theory

D. Gene theory

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83

Violent crimes against people, and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly from its holder are called…

A. Victim precipitated crime

B. Predatory crime

C. Direct criminal activity

D. Part Il offenses

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84

___ can be defined as the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another.

A. Psychological balance

B. Cognition

C. Personality

D. Self-assertiveness

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85

Lombroso's idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically similar to our primitive ancestors is called…

A. Criminal atavism

B. Eugenics

C. Evolutionary theory

D. Morphism

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86

The view that crime is a "normal" function of modern living; offenses can be expected if there is a motivated offender and a suitable target that is not protected by capable guardians is…

A. Control theory

B. Conflict theory

C. Routine Activities theory

D. Social Disorganization Theory

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87

___ theory holds that youth will engage in criminal and delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their behavior.

A. Choice

B. Neurological

C. Trait

D. Evolutionary

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88

Delinquency experts who believe that aggression is a function of the level of an individual's need(s) for stimulation are called…

A. Cognitive theorists

B. Freudian criminologists

C. Biosocial theorists

D. Arousal theorists

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89

A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties by punishing an individual so that others do not commit crime is called…

A. General deterrence

B. Incapacitation

C. Retribution

D. Special deterrence

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90

__ assumes that the frustration experienced by a child with a learning disability leads to a negative self-image and acting out problems.

A. School failure rationale

B. Zero tolerance rationale

C. Susceptibility rationale

D. Special education rationale

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91

When looking at deterrence and delinquency, focusing police activity on _________ seems to work best.

A. Particular problems

B. Community Watch programs

C. Community problems

D. Community social climate

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92

Viewing stealing as borrowing or considering vandalism to be mischief that has gotten out of hand are examples  \n of…

A. Social bonding

B. Neutralization techniques

C. Individual modes of adaptation

D. Focal concerns

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93

According to Travis Hirschi, _______ ties a person to the institutions and processes of society; elements of this cohesiveness include attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.

A. socialization

B. neutralization

C. social bond

D. nondetachment

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94

Some community residents become so suspicious of authority that they develop a _____     in which the outside world is the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood.

A. Fear perspective

B. Siege mentality

C. Interiority complex

D. Neutralized frustration

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95

A concept through which youth are able to utilize their wits to avoid violent confrontation and feel safe is known as…

A. Street efficacy

B. Siege mentality

C. Retreatism

D. Conformity

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96

Which theory holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to legally obtain them?

A. Differential association theory

B. Power-control theory

C. Strain theory

D. Labeling theory

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97

Which of the following is not one of the four elements of socialization?

A. employment

B. peers

C. school

D. family

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98

Which of the following is not one of the three branches of social structure theory?

A. Social disorganization theory

B. Strain theory

C. Cultural deviance theories

D. Social process theories

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99

The ability of communities to regulate the behavior of their residents through the influence of community institutions, such as the family and school, is called…

A. Social disorganization

B. Group cohesiveness

C. Innovation

D. Collective efficacy

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100

According to social disorganization theory, delinquency rates are highest in the…

A. Transitional neighborhoods

B. Suburbs

C. Downtown area

D. Italian sections of the city

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