GA Thoracic Organs of Respiration

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the trachea begins right below the:

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1

the trachea begins right below the:

cricoid cartilage

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2

The phrenic nerve is derived from spinal nerves:

C3-C5

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3

The visceral pleura is supplied by ________ fibers carried by the thoracic splanchnic nerves.

GVA

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4

The lingula is part of the:

upper lobe of the left lung

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5

The secondary bronchi are also known as the:

lobar bronchi

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6

what are the components of the lower respiratory tract?

trachea, bronchi, lungs

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7

what type of cartilage makes up the trachea?

hyaline cartilage

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8

what structure separates the trachea from the upper vs lower respiratory tract?

larynx, lowest part of cartilage is cricoid cartilage

<p>larynx, lowest part of cartilage is cricoid cartilage </p>
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9

what vertebral level indicates where the trachea begins?

C6

<p>C6</p>
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10

what cartilage indicates the last tracheal cartilage?

carina

<p>carina</p>
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11

what vertebral level is the carina?

T4/T5

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12

what two structures branch off of the carina?

left and right mainstem bronchi

<p>left and right mainstem bronchi</p>
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13

what is another name for the right and left mainstem bronchi?

right and left primary bronchi

<p>right and left primary bronchi</p>
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14

what are the three main differences between the right and left primary bronchi?

left mainstem bronchus is longer and right is shorter, right mainstem has a larger lumen (thicker), right mainstem more in line with trachea/vertically oriented (left takes a hard left/horizontally/obliquely oriented)

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15

why is the left mainstem bronchus longer than the right?

left lung pushes further lateral because of the heart so bronchus has to reach further

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16

Secondary bronchi are also known as ____

lobar bronchi (1 bronchi per lobe)

<p>lobar bronchi (1 bronchi per lobe)</p>
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17

how many lobar bronchi are on the left?

2

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18

how many lobar bronchi are on the right?

3

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19

Tertiary bronchi are also known as ______.

segmental bronchi

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20

what is directly anterior to the trachea?

aortic arch

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21

what is directly posterior to the trachea?

esophagus

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22

The tracheal rings are open _______.

posteriorly

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23

why is the trachea open posteriorly?

to allow for esophagus expanding if swallowing large ball of food

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24

what muscle bridges the gap between the opened tracheal rings?

trachealis

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25

during a deep inspiration, what level might the carina be at?

T6

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26

when the diaphragm contracts it moves in what direction?

downward

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27

what are the two membranes of the pleural sac?

visceral and parietal pleuras

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28

what type of membrane is the pleural sac?

serous

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29

what is the function/purpose of a serous membrane?

lubricating membrane

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30

Visceral pleura is in direct contact with ______.

the lung itself

<p>the lung itself</p>
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31

Parietal pleura is in contact with _____.

the wall, thoracic cavity

<p>the wall, thoracic cavity</p>
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32

Pleural cavity is

the space between the visceral pleura and parietal pleura (potential space), contains a thin layer of serous fluid

<p>the space between the visceral pleura and parietal pleura (potential space), contains a thin layer of serous fluid</p>
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33

where do serous membranes come from (embryologically)?

lateral plate mesoderm

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34

costal pleura is in direct contact with _____

the ribs

<p>the ribs</p>
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35

what are the four parts of the parietal pleura?

costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, cervical pleura

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36

What is another name for the cervical pleura?

cupola or dome of the pleura

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37

what are the boundaries of the inferior border of the parietal pleura?

anteriorly rib 8, laterally rib 10, posteriorly T12

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38

Pleural spaces are also known as ____.

recesses

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39

What are the two recesses in the pleural cavity?

costodiaphragmatic and costomediastinal

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40

what is the lowest point in the pleural cavity?

costodiaphragmatic recess

<p>costodiaphragmatic recess</p>
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41

what fits into the costodiaphragmatic recess?

inferior border of the lung

<p>inferior border of the lung</p>
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42

what fits into the costomediastinal recess?

anterior border of the lungs

<p>anterior border of the lungs</p>
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43

The base of the lung is also known as

the diaphragmatic surface

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44

Base of the lung location

most inferior portion of the lung

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45

what are the three surfaces of the lung?

diaphragmatic, mediastinal, costal surfaces

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46

Each surface of the lung is separated by ____

a border

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47

What are the three borders of the lung?

inferior, anterior, posterior borders

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48

What are the contents of the root and hilum? (no photo)

a pulmonary artery, two pulmonary veins, a main bronchus, bronchial vessels, nerves, lymphatics

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49

The anterior border separates what two surfaces?

costal and mediastinal

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50

The inferior border separates what two surfaces?

costal and diaphragmatic surface/base

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51

what separates the lung into lobes?

fissure (slice-like opening)

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52

The oblique fissure of the left lung separates…

the superior and inferior lobes

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53

The oblique fissure on the right lung separates…

the inferior lobe from the other two

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54

The horizontal/transverse fissure separates…

the superior and medial lobes

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55

What anterior landmark is the horizontal/transverse fissure at?

4th rib/costal cartilage

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56

What lateral landmark is the horizontal/transverse fissure at?

6th rib

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57

The ribs slope _____ as they travel forward

inferiorly

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58

The inferior border of the lung is found posteriorly at the level of?

T10

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59

The inferior border of the lung is found laterally at the level of?

rib 8

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60

The inferior border of the lung is found anteriorly at the level of?

rib 6

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61

What level is the inferior boundary of the parietal pleura posteriorly?

T12

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62

What level is the inferior boundary of the parietal pleura laterally?

rib 10

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63

What level is the inferior boundary of the parietal pleura anteriorly?

rib 8

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64

why does the left lung only have two lobes?

gave up middle lobe to make room for the heart

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65

is the left or right lung taller?

left

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66

Lingula

landmark found on the superior lobe of the left lung

<p>landmark found on the superior lobe of the left lung</p>
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67

T/F Functionally speaking the lingula is a lobe of its own.

True

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68

What landmark can be used to distinguish the lingula from the rest of the superior lobe?

cardiac notch

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69

Cardiac notch

shallow depression on the anterior border of the left lung

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70

The root of the lung is made up of the contents of the _____.

hilum

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71

Hilum definition

doorway in and out of any organ

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72

Structures of the root/hilum

pulmonary artery, two pulmonary veins, main bronchus, bronchial vessels, nerves, lymphatics

<p>pulmonary artery, two pulmonary veins, main bronchus, bronchial vessels, nerves, lymphatics</p>
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73

Pulmonary ligament

loose sleeve around the root of the lung, allows the lungs to expand, where visceral and parietal pleura meet

<p>loose sleeve around the root of the lung, allows the lungs to expand, where visceral and parietal pleura meet</p>
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74

Cardiac impression

red

<p>red</p>
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75

Groove for descending thoracic aorta

blue

<p>blue </p>
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76

what is the most superior structure in the left lung’s hilum?

pulmonary artery

<p>pulmonary artery</p>
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77

What structure is anterior an inferior to the left lung’s hilum’s pulmonary artery?

left mainstem bronchus

<p>left mainstem bronchus</p>
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78

What structure is anterior and inferior to the left lung’s hilum’s mainstem bronchus?

pulmonary veins

<p>pulmonary veins</p>
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79

what is the most posterior/superior structure in the right lung’s hilum?

main stem bronchus

<p>main stem bronchus</p>
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80

what structure is anterior to the bronchus of the right lung’s hilum?

pulmonary artery

<p>pulmonary artery</p>
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81

what is anterior and inferior to the right lung’s hilum’s pulmonary artery?

pulmonary veins

<p>pulmonary veins</p>
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82

The cardiac impression larger on the right or left lung?

left

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83

what are the grooves found on the right lung?

cardiac, inferior vena cava, esophagus, azygous vein, brachiocephalic vein

<p>cardiac, inferior vena cava, esophagus, azygous vein, brachiocephalic vein</p>
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84

Bronchopulmonary segment

each have own blood supply, tertiary bronchus, each lobe can be subdivided, are physiologically independent

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85

Segmental bronchus branches into…

large subsegmental bronchus

<p>large subsegmental bronchus</p>
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86

Large subsegmental bronchus branches into…

small subsegmental bronchus

<p>small subsegmental bronchus</p>
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87

Small subsegmental bronchus branches into…

bronchioles then terminal bronchioles

<p>bronchioles then terminal bronchioles</p>
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88

what is the difference between bronchi and bronchioles?

Bronchioles don’t have hyaline cartilage like everything else above

<p>Bronchioles don’t have hyaline cartilage like everything else above</p>
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89

Terminal bronchioles give rise to…

alveolar sacks

<p>alveolar sacks</p>
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90

Terminal bronchiole is also known as the….

respiratory bronchioles (individual alveoles there)

<p>respiratory bronchioles (individual alveoles there)</p>
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91

What are the two types of cells making up the walls of the alveoli?

Type I and Type 2 pneumocytes

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92

Type 1 pneumocytes

squamous cells (flat, plate-like), oxygen doesn’t have to travel far to get through wall of cell, gas exchange

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93

Type 2 pneumocytes

cuboidal (harder for gas exchange), secrete surfactant (reduce surface tension, prevents alveolar sack from collapsing)

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94

Type 2 pneumocytes clinical application

7 months of development, then Type 2 begin functioning, so baby born earlier than 7 months the surface tension too much and respiratory distress

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95

where does exchange of respiratory fluids occur?

alveolar sacks

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96

Bronchial arteries are a branch off of ______.

descending thoracic aorta

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97

The left bronchiole vein drains into the _____

accessory hemiazygous vein

<p>accessory hemiazygous vein </p>
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98

The right bronchiole vein drains into the _____.

azygous vein

<p>azygous vein </p>
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99

where does the majority of the right lung lymph drain into?

right lymphatic duct

<p>right lymphatic duct</p>
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100

where does the left lung lymphatics drain into?

lymphatic duct

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