Social Psychology Reading Quiz

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What do social psychologists do?

1 / 107

Tags and Description

108 Terms

1

What do social psychologists do?

Use scientific methods to study how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. They study the social influences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations

New cards
2

Fritz Heider

proposed the attribution theory

New cards
3

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

New cards
4

Dispositional attribution

attributing behavior to the person's stable, enduring traits

New cards
5

Situational attribution

attributing behavior to the environment

New cards
6

Fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

New cards
7

What can affect attributions?

Culture, self-serving bias, and personal sensitivity

New cards
8

Two exceptions to our usual view of our own actions include...

our deliberate and admirable actions we often attribute to our own good reasons, not to the situation

New cards
9

attitudes

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, the predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. Our attitudes affect our actions, and our actions affect our attitudes

New cards
10

Elaboration likelihood model

theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route

New cards
11

peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

New cards
12

Central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

New cards
13

attitudes-follow-behavior principle

we cannot control all our feelings, but we can influence them by altering our behavior

New cards
14

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

New cards
15

Role

a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. When you adapt to a new role, you strike to follow the social prescriptions

New cards
16

Phillip Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment

college students were randomly assigned to roles of prisoners or guards in a study that looked at how social situations influence behavior. It was very controversial.

New cards
17

What does the Stanford Prison Experiment show?

peoples' behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play

New cards
18

Cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

New cards
19

The more dissonance we feel...

the more motivated we are to find and project consistency, such as changing our attitudes to help justify the act

New cards
20

we can act ourselves into a way of thinking about as easily as what?

as we can think ourselves into a way of thinking

New cards
21

behavior is...

contagious

New cards
22

Is social contagion confined to behavior?

no

New cards
23

Mimicry-type of social contagion

Can also be called the chameleon effect, likening it to the chameleon lizards' ability to take on the color of their surroundings. For example, just hearing someone reading a neutral text in a happy or sad voice creates mood contagion in the reader

New cards
24

Natural mimicry enables us to do what?

empathize and explain why we feel happier around happy people. This also translates to mood linkage

New cards
25

positive herding

when positive ratings generate more positive ratings. Social networks are contagious pathways for moods.

New cards
26

Conformity

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

New cards
27

Solomon Asch's conformity experiment

Asch conducted a study where a participant had to identify which of the 3 lines presented was identical to the line next to the 3. This pressured students into giving certain answers to the questions asked.

New cards
28

Solomon Asch's conclusions

More than 1/3 of time time, "intelligent" college students were "willing to call white black" by going along with the group

New cards
29

We are more likely to conform when...

we are made to feel incompetent or insecure, are in a group with at least three people, are in a group in which everyone else agrees, admire the group's status and attractiveness, have not made a prior commitment to any response, know that others in the group will observe our behavior, and are from a culture than strongly encourages for social standards

New cards
30

Normative social influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

New cards
31

Informational social influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

New cards
32

Stanley Milgram Experiment

a study that involved the role of a "teacher" who shocked a "learner". every single person administered some shock to the learner, and about two-thirds of the participants, of all ages and from all walks of life, obeyed to the fullest extent. gender, age, and ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of obeying

New cards
33

What did Stanley Milgram's experiment demonstrate?

Strong social influences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or give in to cruelty

New cards
34

Obedience (in Milgram's experiment) was highest when what?

the person giving orders was nearby and was perceived as the legitimate authority figure, the research was supported by a prestigious institution, the victim was depersonalized or at a distance and there was no role models for defiance

New cards
35

A small minority that consistently expresses its views may do what?

sway the majority, as may even a single committed individual

New cards
36

Social facilitation

improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. When you do well, you are likely to do it even better in front of an audience, especially a friendly audience. What you normally find difficult may seem all but impossible when you are being watched

New cards
37

Social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

New cards
38

When people act as part of a group, they may feel less accountable and therefore...

worry less about what others think, view their individual contributions as dispensable, overestimate their own contributions, downplaying others' actions, and slack off if they share equally in the benefits, regardless of how much they contribute. Unless highly motivated and strongly identified with the group, people may "free ride" on others' efforts

New cards
39

Deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. It can thrive in many different settings

New cards
40

Group polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. It can be beneficial or toxic. Like minds polarize.

New cards
41

Groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal or alternatives

New cards
42

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Humans differ across cultures but also have a great capacity for it

New cards
43

Are all cultures the same?

No. Cultures differ across time and space and can impact people in different ways.

New cards
44

How do psychologists study implicit prejudice?

testing for unconscious group associations, considering unconscious patronization, and monitoring reflexive bodily response

New cards
45

Prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative attitude) toward a group and its members

New cards
46

Three components of prejudice

beliefs (often stereotypes), emotions, and predispositions to action (discimination)

New cards
47

Explicit and Implicit prejudice in North America

Explicit prejudice in North America has decreased over time, but implicit prejudice continutes

New cards
48

implicit prejudice

an unthinking knee-jerk response operating below conscious awareness

New cards
49

explicit prejudice

prejudicial attitudes that are consciously held, even if they are not publicly expressed

New cards
50

Prejudice involves both explicit and implicit negative attitudes toward what?

people of a particular racial or ethnic group, gender, sexual orientation, or belief system

New cards
51

Prejudice springs from what?

A culture's divisions, the heart's passions, and the mind's natural workings

New cards
52

just-world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

New cards
53

Victims of discrimination may react with....

self blame or anger, and either can feed each others' prejudice through the classic blame-the-victim dynamic

New cards
54

We define our social identity partly in terms of...

groups. We think of "us" and "them"

New cards
55

ingroup

"us"-people with whom we share a common identity

New cards
56

outgroup

"them"-those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

New cards
57

ingroup bias

tendency to favor our own group

New cards
58

humans naturally have a need to...

belong, to live and love in groups

New cards
59

Do negative emotions nourish prejudice?

Yes

New cards
60

Scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

New cards
61

Outgroup homogeneity

uniformity of outgroup attitudes, personality, and appearance

New cards
62

Other-race effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

New cards
63

The cognitive roots of prejudice grow from what?

Our natural ways of processing information: forming categories, remembering vivid cases, and believing that the world is just

New cards
64

Monitoring our feelings and actions, as well as developing new friendships, can help us do what?

Free ourselves from prejudice

New cards
65

What genes influence aggression?

The Y chromosome and MAOA gene (MAOA breaks down neurotransmitters, and low levels of it can cause aggression)

New cards
66

How do neural traits influence aggression?

There can be activity in given key brain areas. Brains have neural systems that, given provocation, will either inhibit or facilitate aggression

New cards
67

How do biochemicals influence aggression?

Excess testosterone in the bloodstream, alcohol in the bloodstream

New cards
68

Aggression

any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally

New cards
69

Aggression results from what?

the interaction of biology and experience

New cards
70

Frustration-aggression principle

the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression

New cards
71

What can alter natural aggressive reactions?

Learning via reinforcement. IN situations where experience has taught us that aggression pays, we are likely to act aggressively again

New cards
72

Media portrayals of violence provide what?

social scripts that children learn to follow

New cards
73

Viewing sexual violence contributes to what?

greater aggression toward women

New cards
74

Playing violent video games increases what?

aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors

New cards
75

How can people like each other (romance)

Proximity, attractiveness, and similarity

New cards
76

How does proximity breed the most liking?

The mere exposure effect

New cards
77

Mere exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

New cards
78

Online/Speed dating relationship strengths

Online matchmaking is slightly more likely to last longer than other relationships. Speed dating pushes the search for romance into high gear.

New cards
79

People who fear rejection often do what?

elicit rejections

New cards
80

given more options for love, people make more (realistic/superficial) choices

superficial

New cards
81

Who is choosier with their speed dates? Men or women?

Women

New cards
82

Physical attractiveness increases what?

social opportunities and improves the way we are perceived

New cards
83

True or false: we like those who like us

True

New cards
84

If love endures, what happens to temporary passionate love?

It will mellow into a lingering companionate love

New cards
85

Passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a romantic relationship

New cards
86

Two-factor theory of emotion

Emotions have two ingredients (physical arousal and cognitive appraisal) and arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal

New cards
87

Sexual desire + a growing attachment =

passionate love

New cards
88

Companionate love

the deep attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

New cards
89

Equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give it. When equity exists, two partners' chances for sustained and satisfying companionate love have been good

New cards
90

Self-disclosure

the act of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others, and it is a part of sharing between partners

New cards
91

Self-disclosing intimacy + mutually supportive equity =

enduring companionate love

New cards
92

Altruism

an unselfish regard for the welfare of others

New cards
93

John Darley and Bibb Latane's findings

Attributed their inaction to an important situational factor-the presence of others. Given certain circumstances, most of us behave similarly. We will help only if the situation enables us to first notice the incident, then interpret it as an emergency, and finally assume the responsibility for helping

New cards
94

bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

New cards
95

The odds of helping are highest when...

the person appears to be in need and deserve help, the person is in some way similar to us, the person is a woman, we have just observed someone else being helpful, we are not in a hurry, we are in a small town, we are feeling guilty, we are focused on others and not preoccupied, and we are in a good mood

New cards
96

happiness breeds...

helpfulness

New cards
97

Social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

New cards
98

Reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who helped them

New cards
99

Social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those needing their help

New cards
100

conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard140 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard91 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 49 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)