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Yalta

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262 Terms

1

Yalta

A meeting in Yalta of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Joseph Stalin in February 1945, in which the leaders discussed the treatment of Germany, the sta- tus of Poland, the creation of the United Nations, and Russian entry into the war against Japan.

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United Nations

An international body agreed upon at the Yalta Conference, and founded at a conference in San Francisco in 1945, consisting of a General Assembly, in which all nations are represented, and a Security Council of the five major Allied powers — the United States, Britain, France, China, and the Soviet Union — and seven other nations elected on a rotating basis.

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Potsdam

The July 1945 conference in which Ameri- can officials convinced the Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin to accept German reparations only from the Soviet zone, or far eastern part of Germany. The agreement paved the way for the division of Germany into East and West.

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Truman Doctrine

Doctrine: President Harry S. Truman's commitment to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." First applied to Greece and Turkey in 1947, it became the justification for U.S. intervention into several countries during the Cold War.

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Marshall Plan

Aid program began in 1948 to help European economies recover from World War II.

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Berlin Airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

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NATO

Military alliance formed in 1949 among the United States, Canada, and Western European nations to counter any possible Soviet threat.

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Warsaw Pact

A military alliance established in Eastern Europe in 1955 to counter the NATO alliance; it included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.

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NSC-68

Top-secret government report of April 1950 warning that national survival in the face of Soviet communism required a massive military buildup.

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10

Douglas MacArthur

MacArthur was initially successful in driving back the North Korean forces over the 38th parallel. He made a controversial move, however, when he continued to push the North Koreans further north and suggested bombing cities in China that were thought to be aiding the North Korean troops. April 11, 1951,

Korean war--1950 to 1953

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Mao Zedong

(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.

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Jiang Jieshi

(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.

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Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

1950-1953

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14

Munich Analogy

A conference in Munich held in September 1938 during which Britain and France agreed to allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland — a German-speaking border area of Czechoslovakia — in return for Hitler's pledge to seek no more territory.

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15

Taft Hartley Act

Law passed by the Republican-controlled Con- gress in 1947 that overhauled the 1935 National Labor Relations Act, placing restrictions on organized labor that made it more difficult for unions to organize workers.

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Election of 1948

The U.S. presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party, a status they would retain until the 1980's.

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Fair Deal

An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

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Loyalty-Security Program

A program created in 1947 by President Truman that permitted officials to investigate any employee of the federal government for "subversive" activities.

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19

HUAC

Congressional committee especially prominent during the early years of the Cold War that investigated Americans who might be disloyal to the government or might have associated with communists or other radicals.

1938

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20

Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

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21

Richard Nixon

1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign

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McCarthyism

The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

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Decleration of Liberated Europe

declared "the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live"

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24

Free and Unsettled Elections

Democratic Elections held in ussr by fdr

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Containment

A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

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George Kennan

He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.

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Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

The Soviet Union's response to the Marshall Plan, whereby the Soviet Union offered economic aid packages for Eastern European countries.

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National Security Council

An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.

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National Security Act of 1947

Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.

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"China Lobby"

People who wanted a third independent force in China with the hope it would become a pro-western nation in Asia.

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"Red China"

Communist China beginning in 1949.

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Kim Il Sung

Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.

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Syng Man Rhee

During the cold war Syngman Rhee was in charge of the US oriented regime in South Korea which led to the permanency of the 38th parallel in Korea. He was also the first president of the provisional government of the republic of Korea and the first president of south korea.

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Yalu River

River separating North Korea and China. UN forces close to the Yalu River caused Chinese intervention.

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Cold War Liberalism

A combination of moderate liberal policies that preserved the programs of the New Deal welfare state and forthright anticommunism that vilified the Soviet Union abroad and radicalism at home. Adopted by President Truman and the Democratic Party during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

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"vital center"

The center of the political spectrum; those who hold moderate political views. The center is vital because without it, it may be difficult, if not impossible, to reach the compromises that are necessary to a political system's continuity.

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Henry A Wallace

Secretary of Commerce under President Truman who was fired in 1946 over a disagreement in foreign policy; ran for president against Truman in 1948 on the Progressive party ticket.

r delivering a speech urging conciliatory policies toward the Soviet Union. W

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Strom Thurmond

Democratic governor of South Carolina who headed the State's Rights Party (Dixiecrats); he ran for president in 1948 against Truman and his mild civil rights proposals and eventually joined the Republican Party.

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Hurbert Humphrey

thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. Humphrey twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota, and served as Democratic Majority Whip

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Exec Order 9835

"Loyalty Order", on March 21, 1947. The order established the first general loyalty program in the United States, designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government.

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Loyalty Security Program

A program created in 1947 by President Truman that permitted officials to investigate any employee of the federal government for "subversive" activities.

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Martin Dies

Anti-Communist Deomcratic representative from texas who had a chaired a congressional committee on "un-American activities".

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Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

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44

Dwight Eisenhower

1953-1961 *Thirty-fourth President *Became Allied military commander during WWII and led forces in North Africa, Italy, and England *Became Republican president after defeating Adlai Stevenson *Signed the truce in 1953 to end Korean War *Completed integration of military forces *Sent troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to ensure desegregation *Gave momentum to desegregation movement *Warned the Us about the "military-industrial complex," which refers to the relationship between the government, the military, and the defense industry

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Nelson Rockefeller

Govenor of NY and VP to Ford. Considered a moderate Republican.

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Nikita Khrushchev

A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.

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47

Hungarian Uprising

1956, spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian people's republic and its soviet imposed policies. First major threat to soviet control since the USSR's forces drove out the Nazis at the end of the cold war.

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48

SEATO

Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand

In September of 1954, the United States, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines,

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49

Iranian Coup,

when the Iranian government did not comply with the massive Western companies controlling the oil in Iran, the CIA devised a rebellion to put Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, a young dictator-like figure, into power as the new shah of Iran. This ultimately led to Iranian bitterness towards America, leading to their revenge decades later.

1953

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Guatemala Coup

The U.S. CIA directed a coup in 1954 that overthrew the ruler of Guatemala who was towards socialism and replaced him with someone who was pro-American and anti-communist.

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51

Ho Chi Minh

1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable

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52

Domino Theory

The US theory that stated, if one country would fall to Communism then they all would.

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53

Ngo Dinh Diem

American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.

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54

Geneva Accords of 1954

a 1954 peace agreement between Ho Chi Minh's communists and the French after the French loss at Dien Bien Phu that divided Vietnam into communist-controlled North and non-communist South until unification elections could be held in 1956. Diem cancelled the elections when he realized the communists would win, further escalating the violence.

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55

Gamel Abdel Nasser

president of Egypt when Israel teamed up with Britain and France to invade the Sinai peninsula; looked good to the Arabs because he stood up to the imperialists

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Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country 1957

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57

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)

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58

Bay of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

A failed U.S.-sponsored invasion of Cuba in 1961 by anti-Castro forces who planned to overthrow Fidel Castro's government.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The 1962 nuclear standoff between the Soviet Union and the United States when the Soviets attempted to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba.

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Peace Corps

(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America

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Sputnik

October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.

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62

NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. 1958

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63

Brinkmanship

the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down

A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests

Brinkmanship was an effective tactic during the Cold War because neither side of the conflict could contemplate mutual assured destruction in a nuclear war

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"Green Berets"

President Kennedy gave enthusiastic support to the expansion of the Special Forces, soldiers who trained specifically to fight guerrilla conflicts and other limited wars.

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65

National Liberation Front/Vietcong

Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.

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66

"New Look"

The defense policy of the Eisenhower administration that stepped up production of the hydrogen bomb and developed long-range bombing capabilities.

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67

Allen Dulles

Director of CIA, appointed by Eisenhower. He was a veteran of wartime OSS cloak-and-dagger operations. He was also the brother of John Foster Dulles

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68

Mohammad Mossadegh

Iranian nationalist leader; established a state owned company created to take control of Anglo-Iranian assets, he was anti-British and was a nationalist. When he went to world market, he couldn't sell any of the oil. There was a worldwide boy cot on Iranian oil. Eventually fled when US stepped in, kicked out to contain communism.

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69

Mohammad Reza

He returned to power as shah of Iran after a successful coup, supported by the United States, against Mohammad Mosaddeq.

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70

Jacob Arbenz Guzman

the Guatemalan president whose government was overturned by the United States in 1954

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71

Lyndon B. Johnson

signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.

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72

Robert McNamara

Secretary of Defense under JFK & LBJ; expanded American involvement in Vietnam

The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly

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Robert Kennedy

He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.

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Yuri Gagarin

Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space (1934-1968)

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75

Bretton Woods System

An international conference in New Hampshire in July 1944 that established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

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Military-industrial complex

A term President Eisenhower used to refer to the military establishment and defense contractors who, he warned, exercised undue influence over the national government.

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77

National Defense Education Act

A 1958 act, passed in response to the Soviet launching of the Sputnik satellite, that funneled millions of dollars into American universities, helping institu- tions such as the University of California at Berkeley and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, among others, become the leading research centers in the world.

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78

Servicemen's Readjustment Act

(1944): Popularly known as the GI Bill, legislation authorizing the government to provide World War II veterans with funds for education, housing, and healthcare, as well as loans to start businesses and buy homes.

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Veteran's Administration

A federal agency that assists former soldiers. Following World War II, the VA helped veterans purchase new homes with no down payment, sparking a building boom that created jobs in the construction industry and fueling con- sumer spending in home appliances and automobiles.

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80

Beats

This cultural group/movement supported bohemianism and harsh critiques of U.S. society; strong influence on 1960s counterculture

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81

Billy Graham

An Evangelist fundamentalism preacher who gained a wide following in the 1950s with his appearances across the country and overseas during and after the war. He would commonly appear at religious rallies and allowed people to connect with and appreciate religion even more, causing thousands to attend his sermons. His prominence was so large that in 1996, he was also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.

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82

Dr. Jonas Salk

Developed polio vaccine

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Dr. Benjamin Spock

Was a 1950's doctor who told the whole baby boom generation how to raise their kids. He also said that raising them was more important and rewarding than extra $ would be.

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The Kinsey Report

a 1948 book by Alfred Kinsey detailing the results of thousands of interviews with men about their sexual behavior

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85

Mattachine Society

The first gay rights organization that worked to persuade the public that apart from their sexual orientation, gays were average Americans who ought not to be persecuted. 1951

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Hugh Hefner

Created Playboy Magazine and brought sex out of the closet. His playboy philosophy was "if it feels good and doesn't hurt anyone, do it". This man and his magazine started the loosening of American morals.

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Levittown

In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.

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88

Shelley v. Kraemer

A 1948 Supreme Court decision that outlawed restrictive covenants on the occupancy of housing developments by African Americans, Asian Americans, and other minorities. Because the Court decision did not actually prohibit racial discrimination in housing, unfair practices against minority groups continued until passage of the Fair Housing Act in 1968.

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89

National Interstate and Highways Act

authorized $26 billion over 10 years to build a nationally integrated highway system

1956

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90

Kerner Commission

created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States

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The Affluent Society

A 1958 book by John Kenneth Galbraith that analyzed the nation's successful middle class and argued that the poor were only an "afterthought" in the minds of economists and politicians.

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92

The Other America

(1962)-This novel was an influential study of poverty in the U.S, published by Michael Harrington & it was a driving force behind the "war on poverty." 1/5 of U.S was living below poverty line.

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collective bargaining

A process of negotiation between labor unions and employers, which after World War II translated into rising wages, expanding benefits, and an increasing rate of homeownership.

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Hollywood

City in the Los Angeles area of California where, by the 1920s, nearly 90 percent of all films in the world were produced.

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Rock and Roll Music

became a symbol of youth culture.

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96

baby boom

A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.

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97

Sunbelt

A region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest that has seen substantial population growth in recent decades, partly fueled by a surge in retiring baby boomers who migrate domestically, as well as the influx of immigrants, both legal and illegal.

states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be politically conservative

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98

"To Secure These Rights"

The 1947 report by the Presidential Committee on Civil Rights that called for robust federal action to ensure equality for African Americans. President Truman asked Congress to make all of the report's recommendations — including the abolition of poll taxes and the restoration of the Fair Employment Practices Commission — into law, leading to discord in the Democratic Party.

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99

States' Rights Democratic Party

A breakaway party of white Democrats from the South, formed for the 1948 election. Its formation shed light on an internal struggle between the civil rights aims of the party's liberal wing and southern white Democrats.

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100

colonias or barrios

colonies or districts of Spanish-speaking people

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