EXAM 3 PSY 315

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Entity Lower Grades

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124 Terms

1

Entity Lower Grades

Effort = Low ability, Failure = Low ability, Strategy = Decrease effort

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2

Fundamental Lexical Approach

whatever is important we have a word for it - exploit the dictionary`

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Fundamental Lexical Approach Allport

psycholexical study: results in 18,000 person descriptive English words, Initial division into traits (about 5,000) states, activities

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Fundamental Lexical Approach Cattell

reductionism into 200 clusters, 35 variables and finally 16 personality factors (16PF)

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5

Fundamental Lexical Approach Norman and Goldbery

Big 5 OCEAN, redid Cattell's project, using modern techniques (multiple judges, computers)

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Big Five

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

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Openness - Big Five

originality, open-mindedness - Careful, methodical, thinks before speaking, task-focused, efficient, not easily distracted

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Conscientiousness - Big Five

constraint, control - Careful, methodical, thinks before speaking, task-focused, efficient, not easily distracted

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Extraversion - Big Five

enthusiasm, energy - Talkative, outgoing, not reserved, assertive, forceful, energetic

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Agreeableness - Big Five

altruism, affection - Considerate, cooperative, not rude, prosocial, trusting, not cold or aloof

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Neuroticism - Big Five

negative affectivity, nervousness - Tense and easily upset, not relaxed vs. emotionally stable, handles stress well

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Factor Analysis

Norman and Goldberg - Statistical method to identify clusters (or groups) of correlated traits, Reduces a large # of items into factors (data reduction)

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Interpersonal effects # of partners

life outcome for high extraversion and for likeability high agreeableness

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14

Juvenile Delinquency

life outcome for low agreeableness and low conscientiousness School performances (grades) - high consciousness (work performance, focus tasks) and high openness (enjoying learning)

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Longevity/longer life

life outcome for high conscientiousness

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16

Happiness

life outcome for high extraversion and low neuroticism

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17

Development change in most people

Decrease in extraversion, openness and neuroticism, Increase in conscientiousness and agreeableness

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18

Stability and change across lifespan

Less stability early on (teens + 20s) and old age, Individual differences in big 5 are stable over years - Particularly stable after 30s, Changes due to events that affect central aspects of identity (career change, divorce, relocation, off the social clock - culture specific, time table, etc)

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19

Antidepressants

Drug induced changes (temp.) - increase extraversion and decrease neuroticism

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20

Psychedelic drugs

Drug induced changes (temporary) - Increase openness

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21

Psychotherapy

3 months or more decrease neuroticism effectively, Same success in increasing extraversion

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22

Recent attention and effort to increase conscientiousness

C as in human capital, People high in conscientiousness - earn more, save more, exercise more, eat healthier, less likely to get divorced

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23

Big Five Allport

did the first study using the fundamental lexical approach but did not use factor analysis - didn't like broad dimensions, kept 5,000 traits - Missing the unique organization of trait in the person

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24

Cardinal traits

a trait that is your most fundamental trait (ex. compassion for Dalai Lama)

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25

Idiographic method preferred

everybody is so different, unique that on single descriptive system (Big 5) cannot possibly describe all

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26

Big Five Cattell

5 factors are not enough "common traits" and created 16PF

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27

PEN model

Eysenck - P (Psychoticism), E (Extraverson), N (Neuroticism)

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Psychoticism - PEN

"abnormal" qualities - aggressiveness, a lack of empathy, interpersonal coldness and antisocial behavioral tendencies

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Extraversion - PEN

Introversion - sociability, activity, liveliness and excitability

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30

Neuroticism - PEN

anxious, depressed, shy and moody

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31

Lemon Drop Test

Results: Introverts salivated significantly more in response to drops than extroverts, Introverts - have more sensitive central nervous system, have lower thresholds to arousal, Extroverts - are less excitable than introverts to the same stimuli, Explanation: Extroverts seek stimulation in order to reach the same levels or excitement

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32

Nonhuman Animal Personality

Permit experimental studies of personality, Study personality change and development, Further understand genetic influences on personality, Promote animal and human welfare

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33

Canine Big Five

O - problem solving, C - impulse control, E - energy level, A - expression of expression, N - emotional stability

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34

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov, a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.

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35

Tabula Rasa

Blank slate - Change the environment and you change the behavior, Behavior is a direct function of situation

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36

Tabula Rasa Limitations and Applications

Complete control of environment (S), Behavior modification/Analysis is NOT psychotherapy

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37

Conditioned Emotional Reaction

Development of an emotional reaction to previously neutral stimulus, Little Albert's fear of rats

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38

System Desensitization

a treatment for phobias in which the patient is exposed to progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli and taught relaxation techniques.

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39

Unconditioning

extinction of "learned fear", gradual exposure

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40

Operant conditioning

change, influence behavior through reward and/or punishment - generally reward works better than punishment

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Positive reinforcement

Presents reinforcer after target behavior, Increases the probability of response in future

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42

Primary Reinforcer

its value is automatic (ex. food and water)

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Secondary Reinforcer

its reinforcing value is acquired through learning (ex. money and tokens)

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44

Punishment

Presents an aversive event or removes a positive event following a response, Decrease the frequency of that response

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45

Negative Reinforcement

Removes an aversive event immediately after a response has been performed, Increase the frequency of that response

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46

Continuous/time based

Schedule of reinforcement - every time when the target behavior happens

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Fixed Ratio

Schedule of reinforcement - reinforcements appear after a certain # of responses

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48

Intermittent/variable Ratio

Schedule of reinforcement - unpredictable schedule, enhance resistance to extinction (ex. casino, social media)

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49

Token Economy

Select target behavior, make reinforcement contingent on desired responses

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50

Boundary conditions

fine in mental health words, prisons, nonhuman animals

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51

Stimulus-Response Theory

Personality structure = learned habits (or S-R bonds), Development of habits S-R associations as a result of rewards Drive = stimulus strong enough to elicit response behavior

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52

Innaate/primary drives

hunger, pain

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53

Learned, secondary drives

fear, anxiety - stimulus to give you pain

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54

Conflicts and SR Theory

when you are facing a stimulus/situation w/ 2 or more alternatives and each requires a difference action

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55

Approach - avoidance conflict

alternatives: pros and cons, basic ingredients of neurotic behavior

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Approach - approach conflict

torn between two desirable alternative

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Avoidance - avoidance conflict

two undesirable alternatives, paying off credit vs. no entertainment $$, procrastination

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Behavioral genetics - twin and adoption studies

Comparing the similarities of members in twin pairs, Twins provide a naturally occurring experiment

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Monozygotic

identical or maternal

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60

Dizygotic

non identical or traditional (share 50% of genes)

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61

H squared

variance in trait accounted for genetic factors divided by the total variance in trait (G / G + E), Population and measurement specific

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Reactive

the same environmental experiences may have different effects on individuals with different genetic makeup

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Evocative

individuals with different genetic makeup may evoke different response from the environment

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Selective

out genetic makeup leads to differences in selection of environment

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65

Shared environment

those shared by sibling as a result of growing up in the same family

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66

Nonshared environment

those not shared by siblings growing up in the same family, More important for personality development than the shared experiences

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67

Birth Order Conscientiousness

More in first born

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Birth Order Agreeableness and Openness to Experience

More in last born

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69

Birth Order - Extraversion and Neuroticism

Depends on facets

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70

Only children

between first and last on most traits except for conscientiousness more like first

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Middle children

are mediator (high agreeableness)

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72

Language and learning in childhood

sensitive critical periods children are genetically prepared for language acquisition (Chomsky), Experience/Stimulation/Function is critical - "use it or lose it", Most organisms are pre-wired or prepared for life experience in some ways, Biology doesn't determine outcome but plays important role by influencing what we attend to and learn quickly

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73

Evolved psychology mechanisms (EPM)

behaviors that were adoptive in ancestral history

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74

Proximal causation

current ex. sex "feels good"

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Distal causation

our evolutionary past initially to pass on genes

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Sensation seeking

More risk sex à more reproduction, Impulsivity à new opportunities for resources, greater vigilance for ancestors, More feel good neurotransmitters Trade off- high mortality, high pathogen prevalence

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77

Physical attractiveness

Waist to hip ratio, Men - "V shape and height", Women - hourglass figure

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78

Facial Attractiveness

Face provides visual signs of fertility and health - symmetry, hormone markers, Golden ratio - some facial features lead to be judged attractive

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79

Across cultures - women and men wanted

Kind and understanding, exciting personality, intelligent and healthy

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80

Mate preferences

Preferences that promote reproductive success will be selected

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81

Women mate preferences

prefer men who are providers, good earning capacity

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Men male preferences

prefer females who shows signs of fertility, physically attractive

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Paternal investment

Mate Preferences - biological difference between sexes case women to invest more in parenting

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84

Parental probability theory

Jealousy - male distress over fidelity, uncertain whether child is his

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85

Jealousy in men

have greater concern about sexual rivals and place greater value on chastity

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Jealousy in women

distress over emotional attachment, potential loss of husband's resources

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87

Men age preferences

Men in 20's - interested in younger and slightly older women (both still fertile), Men in 30's - interested in women who are 5 years younger, Men in 50's - interested in women who are 10 - 12 year young

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88

Women age preferences

attracted to men who are older

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89

Kelly's view

Behavior = F (Perception ([S]), Most important - how individual uniquely perceives, interprets, constructs the world

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90

Constructive Alternativism

There may be an objective truth but we can't know it - can construe it, There are alternative ways to construe the same event, We should play with "make believe" check the "what-ifs" try alternative construct and see where they lead you

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Constructive Alternativism Goal

We are victims of how we constructed out past, Goal: reconstruct self in new ways, become a new person and behave in new ways

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92

Push theory

(carrot theory) - people motivated by external reinforcers, rewards and punishments (behaviorist)

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Pull theory

internal drives/motives that push or propel the person forward (psychoanalytic theories)

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94

Jackass Theory

organism is always attractive: cognitively active - always processing information

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Dynamics of functioning

interplay of A wish to expand construct system (anxiety provoking) and Desire to avoid threat of disruption of that system

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Psychopathology

problems lie in malfunctioning / disorder of the construct system

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Fixed therapy role

helping the client to try new constructs, new ways of thinking and behaving (not completely reconstructing person)

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Experimentation

Conditions for change - create atmosphere in therapy session - try out new constructs, new ways of thinking, and behaving

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New elements

Conditions for change - experiences person to construe

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Validation data

Conditions for change - feedback whether the constructions work

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