TR: assessment and evaluation final

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directive interview

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1

directive interview

reading questionairre to client unobtrusive (sticks to script)

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non-directive interview

genuine, interactive less structured, more inductive more difficult

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3

purpose of interviews

gain info (strengths, needs, interests) build relationships orient them to TR

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4

interview phases

opening body closing

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5

interview opening

trust, who are we?, warm-up

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6

interview body

gaining useful info

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7

interview closing

restate/overview info discussed, next steps

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8

primary questions

new topic starter

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9

secondary questions

follow-up

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10

social construction theory

meaning is conveyed through language and behaviors

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11

neutral questions

no pressure to respond a certain way

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12

leading questions

prompts or encourages the desired answer

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13

self-disclosure

revealing personal info to build rapport superficial do not do too much, dont force it, avoid problem sharing

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14

level of 1 of exchange

safe, non-threatening common conservation, easy, safe

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15

level 2 of exchange

more personal, potentially controversial emotions, values, behaviors, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, feelings, barriers threshold of TR

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16

level 3 of exchange

highly intimate, controversial full-disclosure

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17

3 characteristics of a helping relationship

uncondition positive regard empathy congruence

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18

therapeutic relationship

friendly but not friends not reciprocal

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19

pedlars personal leisure profile

What do you enjoy? What about that do you enjoy? Recently, what has brought enjoyment to your day? What is stopping you from enjoying ___________? Is there something that you have always wanted to do?

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20

secondary questions

to clarify or gather more info nudges clearinghouse probe follow up mirror/summary follow up

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21

nudges

push client along to get more info "interesting, tell me more"

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22

clearinghouse probe

client can say things off topic "is there anything else you'd like to say, anything that I missed"

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23

follow up

for superfical responses, vague reponses, feeling/attitude response, inaccurate response

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24

mirror/summary follow-up

look for confirmation of our understanding "do I have this right?"

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25

advantages of observations

most valid for behavior im natural env "real" behavior record as occurs possible generalizability good with young children and others ease of development

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26

disadvantages of observations

time consuming intrusive determine meaningful behaviors behavior must occur frequently significance of isolated behaviors meaning of behaviors ethical issues

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27

behavioral objectives

specific measureable outcomes

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28

goals

broad statements of intent

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29

parts of an objective

behavior criterion conditions

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30

inter-rater reliability

1 person observes the same behavior more than once or 1+ person observes behavior at the same time

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31

simple agreement

smaller #/larger # = % difficult to interpret not recommended

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32

point to point agreement

agreements/total observations = coeffecient or % want at least 80%

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33

percentage of agreements of occurrence

(100 x agreements of occurrence) / (total observations - agreements of non-occurrence) = % good for use when behaviors are rare

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34

kappa index

expected and actual # of observations

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35

concerns with observations

accuracy and agreement

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36

major problems of observations

reactivity of observer observer drift complexity of scoring observer expectancy and feedback

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37

observation recording methods

checklist rating scale anecdotal notes

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38

checklist observation

inventory of behaviors or skills that the observer marks or checks if the pupil is seen to demonstrate them

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39

rating scale observation

incorporates quality of observed behaviors

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40

anecdotal notes

story about behaviour

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41

stumbo recording techniques

frequency/tally duration interv

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42

frequency/tally

number of observations that occur in a particular predefined interval

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43

duration

measure the total amount of time that the client engages in the target behavior

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44

interval

observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods

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45

instantaneous time sampling

the observer only records the behaviour of the client he or she is observing at certain time points

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46

burlingame recording methods

event continious narrative

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47

event

process for documenting the number of times a behavior occurs

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48

narrative

extended written account of an activity

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49

observing behaviors

everyday notcing of behaviors

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50

behavioral observation

intentional gathering, planned/strategic

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51

ad lib

write it when you see it, good for rare behaviors

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52

focal

recording pre-determined behaviors for a whole length of time

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53

instantaneous

recordinf pre-determined behaviors for randomized intervals of time

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54

behavioral sampling

narrative, looking for specific behavior

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55

periodicity

behaviors may occur on a "schedule"

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56

how to combat periodicity

randomly assigned intervals of observation

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57

berg balance "scale"

0-4 for certain behaviors

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58

functional fitness test

body composition flexibility agaility coordination strength/endurance endurance

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59

skills test

testing skills for specific activties

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60

content analysis

examines written records, documents, materials, media well suited for analysis of communications ex. TV commericals, letters, books, journals, newspapers, patient charts

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61

manifest content

face value, literal/objective

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62

latent content

underlying meaning

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63

challenges of content analysis

collection of info can be tricky level of measurement of also tricky sampling and population

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64

systematic sampling

probability sampling method where researchers select members of the population at a regular interval problem: periodicity

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65

strengths of content analysis

unobtrusive safe inexpensive effecient

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66

weaknesses of content analysis

limited to recorded data (survival bias) validity privacy of info

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67

analysis of existing statistics

uses stats from existing data sources person, family, household, community, city, state

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68

sources of analysis of existing statistics

census, federal agencies, institutional data, org. reports

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69

historical/comparative analysis

content and existing stats likely tracking single event with purpose of explanation

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70

sources for historical/comparative analysis

letters, diaries, journals, books, stats, magazines/newspapers

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71

strengths of forensic review

time effecient non-intrusive data readily accessible

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72

weaknesses of forensic review

settle for original data limited date reduces client contact

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73

why achievement test

screens consumers for elibibility establish baseline for knowledge acquisition evaluate progress/confirm learning

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74

stem

question/statement

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75

distractor

one of incorrect choices

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76

key

correct choice

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77

essay exams are easier to construct that obj. exams

true

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78

essay exams require more student prep than obj. exams

true

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79

essay exams require writing skill, obj exams dont

true

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80

essay exams teach students how to write

false

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81

essay exmas are more subjective

true

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82

obj exmas encourage more guessing than essay exams

true

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83

essay exams limit the amount of content covered

true

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84

essay and obj exams can be used to measure the same content and students will score similarly

true

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85

essay and obj exams measure student learning equally well

true

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86

advantages to multiple choice

versatility reliability internal consistency scoring effecieny/accuracy objective wide sampling reduced guessing vs. true false response alternatives can provide diagnostice feed back

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87

limitations to multiple choice

difficlut/time consuming to construct favors simple recall high degress of depedence on student reading and instructors writing ability

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88

blooms taxonomy

Set of three hierarchical models used for the classification of educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity

KCAASE (Kittens cant access apples so easily)

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89

knowledge

recall of information, discovery, observation, listing, locating, naming

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90

comprehension

understanding, translating, summarizing, demonstrating, discussing

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91

application

using/applying knowledge, using problem solving methods, manipulating, designing, experimenting

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92

analysis

identifiying and analyzing patterns, organization of ideas, recognizing trends

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93

synthesis

using old concepts to create new ideas, design and invention, composing, imagining, inferring, modifying, predicting, combining

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94

evaluation

assesing theories, comparison of ideas, eval. outcomes, solving, judging, recommending, rating

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95

suggestions for writing m.c questions

state stem as entire question put most of info in stem eliminate excess words include words in stem that could be repeated in each distractor use "not" sparingly make all distractors plausible make alternatives grammatically consistent make responses mutually exclusive list responses in logical order make sure only one option is correct make alternatives equal length avoid grammatical cues use at least 4 alternatives randomly distribute corrent reponses use "all of the above" and "none of the above" sparingly

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96

objective achievement tests

easier to grade recognition memory broad eval high reliability more time reading, less writing

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97

subjective achievement tests

easier to write response generation in depth eval more time answering, less reading writing ability affects answer

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98

item difficulty

Pj = Nc / N difficulty index for group of questions = # that get the question correct / # that took the test

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99

item discrimination

Dj = Pju - Pjl discrimination index for group of questions = item difficulty for upper 1/3 - item difficulty for lower 1/3

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100

independent variable

"cause" intervention/activity

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