Spanish Grammar

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Regular present tense

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211 Terms

1

Regular present tense

AR: o, as, a, amos, áis, an

ER: o, es, e, emos, éis, en

IR: o, es, e, imos, ís, en

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2

Stem changing verbs in the present tense

e-ie

o-ue

e-i

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3

irregular yo forms in present tense -go ending

caer - caigo

distinguir - distingo

hacer - hago

poner - pongo

salir - salgo

traer - traigo

valer - valgo

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4

irregular yo forms in present tense -zco ending

conducir - conduzco

conocer - conozco

crecer - crezco

obedecer - obedezco

parecer - parezco

producir - produzco

traducir - traduzco

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5

irregular yo forms in present tense - jo ending

dirigir - dirijo

escoger - escojo

exigir - exijo

proteger - protejo

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6

irregular yo forms in present tense other verbs

caber - quepo

saber - sé

ver - veo

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7

dar present tense conjugations

doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan

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8

decir present tense conjugations

digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen

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9

estar present tense conjugations

estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están

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10

ir present tense conjugations

voy, vas, va, vamos, van

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11

oír present tense conjugations

oigo, oyes, oye, oímos, oyen

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12

ser present tense conjugations

soy, eres, es, somos, son

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tener present tense conjugations

tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tienen

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14

venir present tense conjugations

vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, vienen

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15

Preterite Regular Tense

AR - é, aste, ó, amos, asteis, aron

ER/IR- í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron

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-car verbs preterite

car -> qué

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17

-gar verbs preterite

gar -> gué

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18

-zar verbs preterite

zar -> cé

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19

-uir verbs preterite

-uir -> yó

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20

preterite -ir stem changers

3rd person singular and plural.

e -> i

o -> u

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irregular U stem verbs preterite

tener, estar, andar, poner, poder, saber

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irregular I stem verbs preterite

hacer, querer, venir

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23

irregular J stem verbs preterite

traer, decir, conducir

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24

andar preterite conjugations

anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvieron

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estar preterite conjugations

estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron

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poder preterite conjugation

pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron

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poner preterite conjugation

puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron

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saber preterite conjugation

supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron

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tener preterite conjugation

tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron

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hacer preterite conjugation

hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron

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querer preterite conjugations

quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisieron

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venir preterite conjugation

vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinieron

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conducir preterite conjugation

conduje, condujiste, condujo, condujimos, condujisteis, condujeron

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34

decir preterite conjugation

dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijeron

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35

Traer preterite conjugations

traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajeron

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ir preterite tense conjugation

fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron

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ser preterite conjugation

fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron

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38

imperfect regular tense

AR - aba, abas, aba, ábamos, aban

ER/IR - ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían

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39

irregular imperfect verbs

ir, ser, ver

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40

Ir imperfect conjugation

iba, ibas, iba, íbamos, ibais, iban

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41

Ser imperfect conjunction

era, eras, era, éramos, erais, eran

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42

Ver imperfect conjunction

veía, veías, veía, veíamos, veían

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43

haber imperfect form

había

no plural form

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44

querer imperfect meaning

Wanted to

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45

querer preterite meaning

tried to

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46

poder imperfect meaning

could do

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47

poder preterite meaning

succeeded in doing

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48

saber imperfect meaning

knew the fact

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49

saber preterite meaning

discovered the fact

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50

conocer imperfect meaning

knew them

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51

conocer preterite meaning

met them

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52

present subjunctive tense

yo present indicative, drop O then add:

AR - e, es, e, emos, en

ER/IR - a, as, a, amos, an

for car and gar verbs follow preterite ending rules

for zar verbs change first vowel from zar from o->u and e -> i and add erce, expect for nosotros follow normal zar rules

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53

present tense subjunctive irregular yo forms

conocer, decir, oír, poner, hacer, tener, traer, venir, ver

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54

conocer present subjunctive yo

conozca

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55

decir present subjunctive yo

diga

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56

hacer present subjunctive yo

haga

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57

oír present subjunctive yo

oiga

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58

poner present subjunctive yo

ponga

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59

tener present subjunctive yo

tenga

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60

traer present subjunctive yo

traiga

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61

venir present subjunctive yo

venga

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62

ver present subjunctive yo

vea

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63

stem changing verbs subjunctive

show same stem changes in present indicative

IR stem changing verbs also get stem change in nosotros, AR/ER verbs get stem change in everything but nosotros

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64

irregular present subjunctive verbs

dar, estar, ir, saber, ser

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65

Dar present subjunctive conjugation

dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den

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66

Estar present subjunctive conjugation

esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén

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67

Ir present subjunctive conjugation

vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan

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68

saber present subjunctive conjugation

sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan

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69

Ser present subjunctive conjugation

sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean

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indirect object pronouns

me, te, le, nos, les

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71

direct object pronouns

me, te, lo/la, nos, os, los/las

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prepositional pronouns

mí, ti, él/ella/ud., nosotros, vosotros, ellos/ellas/uds., sí (himself, herself, itself, themselves)

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exceptions when to use mí and ti

tú ad yo used with entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según

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74

formal commands affirmative (imperative tense)

take yo form of indicative and attach endings in place of yo

ar- (no yo), a, e, emos, en

er/ir- (no yo), e, a, amos, an

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formal commands negative (imperative tense)

take yo form of indicative and attach endings in place of yo

ar- (no yo), no -a, no -e, no -emos, no -en

er/ir- (no yo), no -e, no -a, no -amos, no -an

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76

formal vs familiar commands

formal: usted/ustedes

familiar: tú, same as the present subjunctive tú form

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77

nosotros commands (imperative tense)

ar- emos

er/ir- amos

same as the present subjunctive nosotros form

corresponds to "let's + [verb]"

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reflexive verbs affirmative commands (imperative tense)

pronouns are attached to the end of the verb, including irregular tú forms

ar- (no yo), a, e, emos, en

er/ir- (no yo), e, a, amos, an

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reflexive verbs negative commands (imperative tense)

pronouns are not attached to verb, and are placed between no and the verb

ar- (no yo), no -a, no -e, no -emos, no -en

er/ir- (no yo), no -e, no -a, no -amos, no -an

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80

reflexive verbs nosotros commands

when pronouns nos/se are attached, the final s on the verb is dropped before the pronoun is attached

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81

stem changing commands affermative/negative

all change like present tense, except nosotros no stem change occurs in nosotros

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82

irregular affirmative tú commands

(no irregular tú negative form, follows same rules as other conjugations)

decir, hacer, ir, poner, salir, ser, tener, venir

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Indirect command

que + [subjunctive]

correspond to "let someone do something"

if subject of command expresses, it usually follows the verb

direct and indirect object pronouns can go between que and subjunctive

pronouns are never attached to the conjugated verb

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84

decir irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

di

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85

hacer irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

haz

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86

ir irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

ve

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87

poner irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

pon

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88

salir irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

sal

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89

ser irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

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90

tener irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

ten

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91

venir irregular tú command form (imperative tense)

ven

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92

subjunctive trigger verbs and expressions

Verbs & expressions of will and influence: asconesjar, desear, exigir, gustar, hacer, importar, insistir, mandar, necesitar, oponerse a, pedir, preferir, prohibir, proponer, querer, recomendar, rogar sugerir, es importante, es necesario, es urgente [+que]

Verbs and expressions of emotion: alegrarse (de), es bueno, es extraño, es malo, es mejor, es ridículo, es terrible, es una lástima, es una pena, esperar, gustar, molestar, sentir, sorprender, temer, tener miedo (de) [+que]

Verbs and expressions of doubt and denial: dudar, es imposible, es mprobable, es poco cierto/seguro, (no) es posible, (no) es probable, negar, no creer, no es evidente no es cierto/seguro, no es verdad, no estar seguro (de) [+que]

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What triggers the subjunctive tense

verbs and expressions of will and influence, verbs and expressions of emotion, and verbs and expression of doubt or denial

all followed by que then subjunctive verb tense

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94

Subjunctive in adjective clauses

used when the antecedent of an adjective clause contains a negative word

used when the antecedent of an adjective is uncertain

used when talking about hypothetical people, places, or things (exists somewhere, but unknown where)

(do not use a with direct objects that represent hypothetical persons)

used when talking about the negative existence of a person, nadie used (use the personal a before nadie, even when their existence is uncertain)

the subjunctive is commonly used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain

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95

indicative in adjective clauses

used when an adjective clause describes something known to exist

used to talk about specific objects, places , or people (use the personal a when talking about specific people)

use when talking about the positive existence of a person (use the personal a before alguien)

Used if the person responding to a question asked, that is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain of, knows the information

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Reflexive verbs

the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action

always uses reflexive pronouns

most transitive verbs can also be used as reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject performs the action to or for himself or herself

reflexive verbs can have a different meaning

in plural: can express reciprocal actions done to one another

reflexive pronouns precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence

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reflexive verbs with different meanings

aburrir - to bore/aburrirse - to become bored

acordar - to agree/acordarse (de) - to remember

comer- to eat/comerse- to eat up

dormir - to sleep/ dormirse - to fall asleep

ir - to go/ irse (de) - to leave

llevar - to carry; to wear/ llevarse - to carry away

mudar - to change/mudarse - to move (change residence)

parecer - to seem/ paracerse (a) - to resemble, to look like

poner - to put/ ponerse - to put on (clothing)

quitar - to take away/ quitarse - to take off (clothing)

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to get or be become reflexive frequently

ponerse + adjective

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99

reflexive verbs pronouns

me, te, se, nos, os, se

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reflexive pronoun placement with direct object pronouns

the reflexive pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence

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