ANAPHY LEC LESSON 2: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF HUMAN BODY

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Organization of Human Body (simplest to most complex)

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239 Terms

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Organization of Human Body (simplest to most complex)

chemical-organelle-cell-tissue-organ-organ system-organism

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Chemical Level

all matter is composed of atoms containing protons, neutrons, and electrons

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Protons

atomic number equals the number of _________

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Protons + Neutrons

atomic mass equals the ____________

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Protons and neutrons

contained in the central nucleus of an atom

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Electrons

____________ circle the nucleus

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Protons

positively charged ions

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Neutrons

they have no electrical charge

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Electrons

negatively charged ions

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Isotopes

atoms that have additional or missing neutrons

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Radioisotope

if an isotope freely gives off particles. It is used for diagnostic purposes and will check if there is uptake of isotopes in cells

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Covalent Bond

atoms share electrons

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Ionic Bond

atoms give off and receive electrons

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Water

serves key function in the body

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Water

separate ionically bonded atoms into ions to create electrolytes

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5 functions of water in human body

water chemically separates ionically bonded molecules into individual ions called eletrolytes

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5 functions of water in human body

water works as a lubricant in tears and fluid of joints

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5 functions of water in human body

water aid is in chemical reactions, as in saliva during digestion.

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5 functions of water in human body

water is used to transport nutrients and wastes in blood plasma

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5 functions of water in human body

water is used for temperature regulation

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2 basic parts of solution

solutes and solvent

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Concentration

amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent

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Hypertonic Solution

it is more concentrated with solutes than the other solution.

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Hypertonic solution

could lead to cell shrinkage due to excess fluid that will be released

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Isotonic solution

it has same concentration of solutes as the other solution

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Isotonic solution

has 270-300 osmolality, There is equal concentration inside and outside of the cell

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Hypotonic solution

it is less concentrated with solutes than other solutions.

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Hypotonic solution

it can cause cells to swell.

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Acids

hydrogen ions (H+) donors

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Base

hydrogen ions (H+) acceptor

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pH scale

used to measure acidity and alkalinity

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Normal pH level of Urine

5.00-6.50 (if higher, it could indicate UTI)

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4 Organic Molecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

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Carbohydrates

formed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms (2 hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom)

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Carbohydrates

primary source of nutrient energy for body cells

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Carbohydrates

classified by molecular size due to number of bonded subunits

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Monosaccharides

these are simple sugars

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Monosaccharides

simplest carbohydrate

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Monosaccharides

building blocks of carbohydrates

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Glucose

major fuel for cells

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Fructose and galactose

6-carbon simple sugars found in foods

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Disaccharides

formed by chemically combining 2 monosaccharides

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Disaccharides

examples are maltose, sucrose, and lactose

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Polysaccharides

formed by chemically combining many monosaccharides

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Glycogen

animal carbohydrate storage

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Starch

plant carbohydrate storage

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Lipids

it uses carbon atoms to form the backbone of the molecule

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Lipids

There are many more hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms

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Lipids

building blocks are often glycerol and fatty acids

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Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins.

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Proteins

composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms

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Proteins

consists of an amine group, acid group, and a R group.

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20

___ different types of amino acids, each differ in their R groups

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Polypeptide

long strings of amino acids that fold to form functional proteins.

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2 types of Nucleic Acids

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

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Nucleotides

building blocks of nucleic acids

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Nucleotides is composed of

1 pentose sugar, 1 phosphate and 1 nitrogenous base

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Nitrogenous base of DNA

guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine

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Nitrogenous base of RNA

guanine, cytosine, adenine, and uracil

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Triplets

nucleotides are arranged in three-letter sequence called ________

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Triplets

determine the genetic code

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Gene

code instructions such as how to make a protein molecule

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Chemical reactions

molecules must come together to react

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Metabolism

the total of all chemical reactions in the body

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Speed of Reactions

1. Concentration of the reactant is increased 2. The speed of the reactants is increased by adding heat 3. A catalyst is used.

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Cellular Respiration

one of the most important chemical reactions in the body

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Cellular Respiration

glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water

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ATP

usable form of energy for the cell.

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Organelles

are suspended within the cell in a fluid called cytoplasm

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Cell Membrane

a phospholipid bilayer that gives structure to the cell and regulates what may enter and leave the cell

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Cell Membrane

outermost part of the cell

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Extracellular substances

substances outside the cell

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Intracellular substances

substances inside the cell

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Phospholipids

primary component of a cell membrane and are composed of hydrophilic glycerol head and two fatty acid hydrophobic chains.

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Hydrophobic

water-fearing chains

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Hydrophilic

water-loving glycerol heads

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Bilayer

means that the glycerol head face the extracellular and intracellular fluids and that the fatty acid chains face toward each other (away from the fluids)

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Phospholipids

are not rigidly connected; they float side by side in what is called fluid mosaic.

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Nucleus

part of the cell that houses the DNA

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Nucleus

site of RNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.

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Nucleus

it is located in a variable location within a cell.

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Mitochondria

organelles that perform cellular respiration, and the process the energy of ATP

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Mitochondria

rod shaped; enclosed by a membrane

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Mitochondria

found in large numbers in cells with high energy demands.

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Ribosomes

organelles that assemble proteins

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Ribosomes

found in cytoplasm

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

sheets of membrane extending from nuclear membrane

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

it has many ribosomes attached and it is the site for protein synthesis

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

it participates in detoxification and the site of lipid synthesis

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Golgi Complex (Golgi Apparatus)

membrane-enclosed folds usually close to the ER

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Golgi Complex (Golgi Apparatus)

extensive in cells involved in protein and lipid production

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Golgi Complex (Golgi Apparatus)

receives and modifies proteins and lipids produced in the cell

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Secretory Vesicles

membrane packages bubbled off the Golgi Complex that contain the inspected and modifed products of the Golgi complex.

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Secretory Vesicles

found in large numbers in cells that produce proteins for export out of the cell.

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Secretory Vesicles

carry materials from the Golgi complex to the cell membrane for export outside the cell

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Lysosomes

membrane-bound packages of enzymes

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Lysosomes

found in large numbers in cells require to destroy materials (WBC destroy bacteria)

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Lysosomes

store and isolate enzymes often used for intracellular digestion until they are needed.

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Receptor

for hormones and other specific chemicals

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Channels

are passageways for transport of substances in and out of the cell that cannot travel through the phospholipid bilayer

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