chapter 23

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What is the essential organ in the male reproductive system

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158 Terms

1

What is the essential organ in the male reproductive system

testes

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2

Where is sperm made

testes

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3

What is the scrotum

pouch that supports testes

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4

What does the septum in the scrotum do

divides testes into right and left

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5

What is the temperature sperm requires for production

2-3 degrees Celsius below

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6

What is the function of the cremaster muscle

raise and lower testes to adjust temperature

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7

What are paired oval glands

testes

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8

What is the function of the homologous structure

determines chromosomes

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9

When do the testes descend

7th month of fetal development

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10

What chromosomes are male

XY

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11

What chromosomes are female

XX

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12

How many lobules are in the seminiferous tubules

200-300

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13

What is the function of seminiferous tubules

produce sperm

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14

What lines the testes

spermatagonia, Sertoli cells, interstitial cells

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15

How many chromosomes are given from each parent

23

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16

What cell does meiosis make

haploid cells

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17

What are diploid cells

paired homologous chromosomes

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18

What are haploid cells

unpaired chromosomes

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19

What cells are gametes

haploid cells

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20

What is required for gamete production

meiosis

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21

What forms the blood test is barrier

sertoli cells

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22

What is the function of Sertoli cells

produce fluid and control sperm release into the lumen

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23

What do Sertoli cells secrete

inhibin

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24

What is the function of inhibin

slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH

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25

What is the function of leydig "interstitial" cells

secrete testosterone

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26

Where are leydig "interstitial" cells located

between seminiferous tubules

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27

What do spermatogenic cells create

spermatogonia

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28

If there is enough sperm being produced, would there be more or less inhibin

more

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29

What are the stages of spermatogenesis

meiosis 1, meiosis 2, spermiogenesis

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30

Where does spermatogenesis occur

seminiferous tubules and epididymis

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31

What cells are involved in spermatogenesis

spermatagonia, Sertoli cells, interstitial cells (leydig)

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32

What holds mature sperm

epididymis

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33

Where does spermatogenesis move through

rete testes and efferent ductules

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34

When does a male start spermatogenesis

puberty

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35

How long does it take for the first sperm to release from spermatogenesis

65-75 days

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36

What stage do spermatogonium divide

mitosis

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37

When do chromosomes replicate for sperm

meiosis 1

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38

What occurs in meiosis 1 for sperm

exchange genetic material

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39

When are sperm cells haploids

after cell division in meiosis 1

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40

What are the sperm cells from meiosis 1

secondary spermatocytes

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41

What occurs in meiosis 2 for sperm

cells divide and have one copy of each chromatid in each

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42

What are the sperm cells called after meiosis 2

spermatids

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43

What cell is needed for spermiogenesis

sertoli cells

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44

How many mature cells are made from spermiogenesis

4

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45

Once spermatids go through spermiogenesis, what are the cells called

spermatozoa

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46

What percentage of chromosomes do sperm hold

50%

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47

What decides the X or Y chromosome

sperm

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48

How much sperm is made a day

300 million

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49

How long does sperm live in the female tract

48 hours

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50

What is the role of the tail in sperm

motility; travel through fallopian tube

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51

What is the role of the middle head in sperm

has mitochondria; makes energy

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52

What is the role of the head in sperm

has 23 chromosomes and acrosomal cap

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53

What is the purpose of the acrosomal cap

has enzymes that penetrate the egg

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54

What occurs in prophase 1 for spermatogenesis

crossing over; exchange of genes

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55

How many viable cells are male

4

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56

How many viable cells are female

1

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57

How many daughter cells are made from spermatogenesis

4

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58

What does gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) do

promotes secretion of FSH and LH

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59

What and where does binding to change genetic activity for testosterone effects occur

testosterone and DHT in nucleus

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60

If there is a slow sperm production, is more inhibin released or less

less; more FSH

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61

Are erections a parasympathetic or sympathetic response

parasympathetic

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62

Is ejaculation sympathetic or parasympathetic

sympathetic

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63

What is the function of seminal vesicles

make most of the fluid of sperm

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64

Where is the prostate gland located

surrounds the urethra

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65

What is the function of bulbourethral glands

secretes mucus fluid and more alkalinity for sperm

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66

What is the function of the prostate gland for sperm

increases volume and adds antibiotics

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67

What is the function of alkalinity

neutralize acid in tracts

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68

What is the function of prostaglandins

activation of sperm

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69

What is the root of the penis

attached portion

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70

What is the function of the urethra

passage for semen and urine

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71

What is the dorsal body of the penis

corpora cavernosa

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72

What is the midventral body of the penis

corpus spongiosum

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73

What body of the penis contains the urethra

midventral (corpus spongiosum)

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74

What covers the uncircumcised glans penis

prepuce

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75

What does the dilation of penile arteries cause

erection

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76

Is ovum singular or plural

singular

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77

Is ova singular or plural

plural

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78

What are ovaries

paired organs on each side of the uterus

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79

What is the function of the female urethra

carries urine out

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80

What is the function of the vagina

reproduction

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81

True or false; there is a direct connection between the fallopian (uterine) tube and ovary

false; no direct connection

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82

What cavity are the female reproductive organs found in

pelvic

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83

What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete

progesterone, relaxin, inhibin, estrogen

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84

Is menopause caused by a female running out of eggs or a hormone receptor problem

hormone receptor problem

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85

Where do female follicles develop

ovarian cortex

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86

What is the outer structure of an ovary

ovarian cortex

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87

What is the inner structure of an ovary

ovarian medulla

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88

What is present in the post ovulatory phase

corpus luteum

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89

Do females have all eggs before birth, or do they make more as they grow

have all eggs before birth

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90

When does meiosis 1 begin in females

before birth; utero

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91

When does meiosis 1 finish in females

puberty

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92

When are oogonias formed

fetal development

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93

When are primary oocytes formed

before birth

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94

At the end of meiosis 1 in females, what cells are produced

haploid cells; secondary oocyte and polar body

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95

True or false; the primary body has more cytoplasm

false; secondary oocyte has more cytoplasm

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96

When is meiosis 2 complete in females

fertilization

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97

When does a diploid zygote form

sperm and ovum unite

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98

Where does implantation occur

uterus

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99

Where does fertilization occur

fallopian (uterine) tube

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100

What cell is discarded during a female's period

polar body

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