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1

Standard Error of the Mean

a statistical term that measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation

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2

Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much data varies around the mean

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3

Error Bars

On bar or line graphs

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4

Normal Curve

The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many attributes of chance. Most scores fall near the average

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5

A Histogram

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.

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6

Confidence Intervals

The range on either side of an estimate that is likely to contain the true value for the whole population (2 Standard Errors)

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Certainty

What Standard Error Measures

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8

Variability

What Standard Deviation Measures

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9

Sample Size

The number of times a measurement is replicated in data collection

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10

Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution

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11

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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12

Bucket Size

How to separate groups of data in a histogram

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13

Column Chart

Used when comparing the means of different groups

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14

Box Plots

Alt version of Column Chart that is used when data is not normally distributed

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15

Line Graph

A type of chart that displays a series of data points; in biological context

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16

Scatter Chart

Used to compare two continuous variables; allows us to visualize patterns between 2 variables and allows for more than 1 value for each variable

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17

R^2 = 0

This means a change in one variable cannot predict the other variable.

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18

R^2 = 1

This means that a change in one variable is perfectly

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19

Characteristics of Life

order, reproduction, growth and development, energy processing, regulation, response to the environment, evolutionary adaptation

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20

Taxonomy

Defining and classifying biological organisms by shared characteristics

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21

Ecology

Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

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22

Random Dispersal

Individuals in a population are spaced in an unpredictable way without a pattern. ex. dandelions that grow from windblown seeds might be randomly dispersed.

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Uniform Dispersal

Individuals are separated by a fairly consistent distance

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24

Clumped Dispersal

Individuals are grouped in patches

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25

Carrying Capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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26

Logarithmic Growth

Growth of a population that levels off at carrying capacity

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27

Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

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28

Niche

An organism's particular role in an ecosystem; the ecosystem resources and conditions in which a species can grow and thrive

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29

Community Ecology

The interaction of communities (between MULTIPLE species)

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30

Community

A Group of Populations

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31

Principle of Competitive Exclusion

Two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot exist together at a consistent population value

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Niche Partitioning

Organisms find parts of a niche and adapt to it to avoid competition

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33

Fundamental Niche

Where organism would potentially be

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34

Realized Niche

Where organism is due to niche partitioning

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35

Competition

(-,-)

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36

Exploitation

(+,-)

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Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism

Examples of Exploitation

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Mutualism

(+,+)

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Symbiosis

When an association becomes consistent, often species eventually require the other for survival

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40

Keystone Species

A species that has a disproportionate effect on its community (predator, mutualist, ecosystem engineer)

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41

Primary Succession

Begins in a Lifeless Area; Starts with Rock (no soil) - Type of Succession

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Ecological Succession

The transition in species composition over ecological time (plants and species)

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43

Secondary Succession

Starts with Soil - Type of Succession

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44

Consumption

How Energy is Transferred

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45

Trophic Structure

A pattern of feeding relationships

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46

Producers → Primary → Secondary → Tertiary → Quaternary

Trophic Levels

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47

Biomass

Plant materials and animal waste used as fuel

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48

Air

How Matter Moves through an Ecosystem

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49

Carbon Cycle

The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again

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50

Nitrogen Cycle

The circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil

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51

Eutrophication

Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen (fancy term for fish kill)

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