Unit 2 Population and Migration RHS AP Human 21-22

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Climate

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59 Terms

1

Climate

The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time

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2

Landforms

natural features of the earth's surface

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3

Water Bodies

inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)

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4

Distribution

The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.

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5

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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6

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

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7

Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

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8

Carrying Capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.

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9

Population Pyramid

A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex.

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10

Demographics

the characteristics of a population with respect to age, race, and gender.

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11

Birth Rate

the number of live births per thousand of population per year.

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12

Death Rates

the number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in a population.

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13

Life Expectancy

The average number of years a newborn can expect to live.

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14

Dependency Ratio

The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.

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15

Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)

The difference in births and deaths in a population, usually expressed as a percentage; does not take into account migration into or out of an area.

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16

Population Doubling Time

The number of years required for a population to double in size.

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17

Fertility

the incidence of childbearing in a country's population

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18

Mortality

death

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19

Demographic Transition Model

a model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy

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20

Stage 1 DTM

Low Growth, very high CBR, High CBR, Low NIR

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21

Stage 2 DTM

High CBR, Lowering CDR, Increasing NIR, exploding population

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22

Stage 3 DTM

Decreasing CBR, Low CDR, Decreasing NIR, population growth

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23

Stage 4 DTM

Low CBR, Low CDR, Low NIR, stable (but large) population

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24

Stage 5 DTM

Low CBR, Increasing CDR, Negative NIR, decreasing population

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25

Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

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26

Epidimiological Transition Model

A model that describes the major causes of death between the different stages of development. It goes from famine and natural plagues and diseases to man made afflictions such as smoking and heart attacks due to diet and lack of exercise.

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27

ETM Stage 1 (Pestilence and Famine)

Pestilence, famine, and human conflict cause high CDR (Ex. Black Plague)

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28

ETM Stage 2 (Receding Pandemics)

Receding pandemics with improved sanitation and nutrition, rapidly declining CDR

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29

ETM Stage 3 & 4 (Degenerative Diseases)

Elderly diseases, CBR down, Population stable The introduction of healthcare & antibiotics led to an increased life expectancy—obesity-related and degenerative disease.

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30

ETM Stage 5 (Reemerging Diseases)

a proposed stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases and some become resistant to antibiotics; CDR increases

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31

Thomas Malthus

Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.

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32

Malthusian Theory

The theory that population grows faster than food supply

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33

Neo-Malthusians

group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources

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34

Esther Boserup

Geographer who believed that our farming technology will always improve in order to be able to feed the growing population of the planet.

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35

Pronatalist

a government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception

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36

Antinatalist

Policies that discourage people from having children (China's One Child Policy)

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37

Contraception

Intentionally preventing pregnancy from occurring

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38

Laws of Migration (Ravenstein)

  1. Most migrations are over a short distance.

  2. Migration occurs in a series of steps.

  3. Long-distance migration tends to go to urban areas.

  4. Migration flows create counter flows.

  5. Rural residents are more likely to move than an urban residence.

  6. Women migrate more often inside their country (shorter distances) and men migrate outside of the country (longer distances). -Not true today

  7. Most migrants are young adult males.

  8. Migration increases with economic development.

  9. Migration is mostly due to economic causes.

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39

Ernst Ravenstein

created laws of migration

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40

Migration

movement of people from one place to another

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41

International Migration

Permanent movement from one country to another.

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42

Interregional Migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

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43

Intraregional Migration

movement within a region

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44

Push Factors

Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.

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45

Pull Factors

Factors that induce people to move to a new location.

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46

Forced Migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

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47

Voluntary Migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

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48

Slavery

A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.

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49

Refugees

A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster

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50

Internally Displaced Person (IDP)

someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders

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51

Asylum Seeker

a migrant hoping to be declared a refugee in a foreign country

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52

Transnational Migration

a process of movement and settlement across international borders in which individuals maintain or build multiple networks of connection to their country of origin while at the same time settling in a new country

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53

Transhumance

A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.

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54

Circular Migration

the temporary and usually repetitive movement of a migrant worker between home and host areas, typically for the purpose of employment

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55

Internal Migration

permanent movement within the same country

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56

Step Migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

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57

Chain Migration

The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.

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58

Guest Workers

legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term

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59

Rural to Urban Migration

the movement of people from the countryside to the city

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