health ed nov 2022 (copy)

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dietary reccomendations

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dietary reccomendations

  • meal frequency and timing

  • food plate model

  • eat a rainbow a day

  • eat 5-7 times a day at even intervals

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Food plate model

knowt flashcard image
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vitamin

An organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires

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Vitamin E

Found in: corn, nuts, olives, leafy green vegetables, vegetable oils and wheat germ Food alone cannot provide a benefitial amount, supplements are helpful

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Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid Found in: citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and sweet/white potatoes

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Vitamin A/beta carotene

A: animal sources such as eggs, meat and dairy products Beta carotene: green leafy vegetables, intensely coloured fruits and vegetables

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Vitamin D

The body makes vitamin D when exposed to sun Found in: cheese, butter, margarine, fish, fortified milk/cereals

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Vitamin B1

Found in: fortified breads/cereals, fish, lean meats and milk

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Vitamin B12

Found in: eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk and milk products

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free radicals

Highly reactive chemicals, they harm cells and form health conditions when a molecule or atom gains or loses an electron.

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antioxidants

Primarily known for neutralising free radicals. They are naturally created by the body but we need more from food (blueberries, apples…)

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Superfoods

A marketing term with minimal scientific basis. Superfoods -term contains a health claim that a food product would provide health benefits due to exceptional nutrient density. In many cases not true.

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Scurvy

Disease from lack of vitamin C Early symptoms: weakness, feeling tired and sore arms and legs.

Without treatment: decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur

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Rickets

Disease from lack of vitamin D/calcium

Causes bone pain, poor growth and soft, weak bones that can lead to bone deformities.

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Beriberi

Disease from lack of vitamin B1

Wet beriberi: affects the cardiovascular system. Life-threatening medical emergency.

Dry beriber: affects the central nervous system Disrupts motor functioning, impairs reflexes and numbness.

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Most essential minerals:

When you eat a healthy diet that includes a variety of vegetables, beans, fruits, whole grains, lean protein, dairy products, and unsaturated fats (like olive oil), you're likely consuming all the healthy minerals you need. You probably don't need to pay attention to your daily intake.

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Calcium

The most common (99%) in bones Function: essential for normal bone and teeth formation

well-known sources: dairy products and grains vegetarians and lactose-intolerants can have a low intake of calcium → calcium supplement is needed

You need huge amounts now for growing and building bones and teeth

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Osteoporosis causes

Low intake of calcium has a role in development of osteoporosis (other risk factors include: gender, age, body size) although family history was the most important factor

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Sodium chloride aka salt

Recommendations: women 6g/day, men 7g/day Daily intake: women 7g/day, men 10g/day High intake can raise blood pressure (heart diseases) Sources: grain and meat products

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Electrolytes

Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge Hard and/or long-distance exercise → sweating → low salt (electrolyte) level → sports drinks Lack of electrolytes can cause cramps, cramp is involuntary contraction of one or more of your muscles

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Blood pressure

Pressure of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries Systolic/diastolic pressure: ideal 120/80 mmHg

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Iron

  • function: oxygen carrier in red blood cells’ hemoglobin Iron from food comes in two forms, heme and non heme

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Hemoglobin

The protein in red blood cells

Vital in endurance sports: High red blood cell volume means you have a high oxygen transport to the active skeletal muscles because of a high cardiac output, which makes you have a higher athletic performance.

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Heme iron

Sources: meat fish and poultry

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Non heme iron

Sources: plants, absorption can be boosted by Vitamin C

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Iron defficiency

Iron deficiency: the lack of iron due to increased need for iron or decreased amount of intake

Teenage girls: growth + physical activity + the iron lost during menstruation + if careless eating habits → iron deficiency

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Iron defficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia = prolonged, low intake of iron leads to decreased level of hemoglobin

Anemia: a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal

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Iron absorbtion

improvements: foods high in vitamin C, A or beta carotene

decreases: phytate/polyphenols: black tea, coffee, wine

Recommended iron intake teenage girls/boys: 11 mg 15 mg

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reasons people follow special diets

  • religion

  • Diseases and allergies - medical

  • Health

  • Beliefs and values

  • Culture

  • Training

  • A fad/trend

  • Attention

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Lactose intolerance - lactose free diet

Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase that prevents the splitting of lactose → Lactose remains in the intestines → Water and fermentation → Stomach pains and gas

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Lactose

the milk sugar

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Lactase

the enzyme needed for splitting lactose into glucose and galactose

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Celiac disease

digestive disease caused by grain products which contain gluten

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Gluten

a protein contained in wheat, rye and barley causes damage to the mucosal surface of the small intestine →interferes the absorption of nutrients

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paleo(lithic) diet

Aka Caveman diet, Hunter-Gatherer diet, Stone Age Diet

The idea is to follow diet similar to our ancestors millions of years ago

“Paleo people” think our digestive system has not had time (evolution) to adapt to a modern, processed foods excluding e.g. grains, processed oils, dairy, refined sugar

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Kosher diet - the jewish diet

All blood must be drained Meat cannot be eaten with dairy Animal that has cloven hooves are permitted ”Pareve” (neutral) can be mixed with meat/dairy Challenging to keep in practice

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Kosher

a term describing food that are prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Jewish law

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Islamic diet - the muslim diet

Halal foods are determined in Quran Prohibited items

  • Pork

  • Animal improperly slaughtered/already dead without proper slaughter

  • Alcoholic drinks

  • Carnivorous animals

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Halal

permitted

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Haram

prohibited

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Diabetes - diabetic diet

Suits for all + high intake of unsaturated fats and dietary fiber

Low intake of salt, saturated fats and sugar Type 1: the goal is to control the blood sugar levels Type 2: the goal is to prevent gaining weight

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GL

Glycemic Index (GI) represents the effect carbohydrates have on blood glucose. GI less than 55 provides sustained energy whereas high GI foods raise blood glucose rapidly

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Low carb diet

The idea is to reduce the intake of carbohydrates

Based on the belief that one loses weight rapidly and that LCD prevents body from various inflammation reactions (low-grade inflammation) caused by carbs

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Flexitarian diet

Plant-based diet with flexibility for animal products in moderation

Added sugar in moderation Refined grains in moderation

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Pescetarian diet

No meat

  • low saturated fat intake – lower LDL-cholesterol, less cardiovascular disease, Lower body weight – diabetes risk reduced

  • Inappropriate treatment of farm animals

  • Global issues

  • Fish and seafood + veggies

  • Nutritionally high quality

  • Unsaturated fats and good fatty acids

  • Enough protein if fish is eaten regularly

  • No heme-iron from animal (red meat) sources → iron deficiency (?)

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Lacto-ovo vegetarian diet

Dairy + eggs + veggies

Nutritionally like the lactovegetarian

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Lacto vegetarian diet

Dairy products + veggies

The most common

Nuts, legumes and seeds

If the diet contains fatty dairy products → high intake of saturated fats

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Vegan diet

Contains lots of antioxidants and dietary fiber

Requires planning in order for one to ensure sufficient intake of nutrients

Vitamin B12 and D and calcium deficiencies need to take into consideration

Typically, vegans’ iron intake is sufficient (some studies suggest it is 1,4x greater). However, one needs to take poor non-heme iron absorption into consideration

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Living and raw food diet

Raw vegetarian food, prepared without heating

A way of living: includes e.g. good respiration techniques, relaxation, and positive thinking

Low energy intake

Not recommended for children or pregnant women

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Dental erosion caused by

the consumption of fruit drinks and juices

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