Biochem Exam 1

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dielectric constant

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dielectric constant

the measure of the ability of a substance to store electrical energy (polarizability)

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higher

the ____________ the dielectric constant, the weaker the interaction is between charges

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lower

dehydration would lead to a __________ dielectric constant

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hydrogen bonding

Interaction between a covalently-bonded hydrogen atom on a donor group (-OH or -NH) and a pair of bonded electrons on an acceptor group (O=C or N=-)

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60

water is __% of our body weight

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dipole-dipole

water has a high heat capacity and heat of vaporization due to _____________ interactions

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heat of vaporization

water's high _______________ prevents dehydration and decreases body temperature

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dielectric constant

water's high _____________ is due to the ion-dipole interactions it experiences & it causes ions to exist in biological solutions

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amphipathic

_____________ molecules are those which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, such as fatty acids, lipids, and detergents

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40

intracellular fluid (ICF) makes up __% of body weight and includes K+ proteins and organic ions

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20

Extracellular fluid (ECF) makes up __% of body weight and includes NaCl and NaHCO3 in solution

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osmotic pressure

hydrostatic pressure produced by a solution in space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to a differential in the concentrations of solute

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osmole

non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solution's osmotic pressure

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osmolality

measure of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent

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salt

water flows toward high concentrations of salt

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Na+, K+

the ecf should have high _________ and low ________________

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K+, Na+

the icf should have high _________ and low ________________

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excessive water intake

hyposmotic expansion

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loss of salt (kidneys)

hyposmotic contraction

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edema

isosmotic expansion

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hemmorage

isosmotic contraction

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drinking saline

hyperosmotic expansion

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severe sweating

hyperosmotic contraction

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hyposmotic

lower salt concentration than currently in ECF and ICF

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hyperosmotic

higher salt concentration than currently in the ECF and ICF

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isosmotic

approximately equal to the current ECF and ICF concentrations

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non-covalent interactions

electrostatic interactions, dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, dispersion forces, hydrophobic interactions

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lowers

dehydration causes fewer water molecules to take up the same relative volume, which results in lengthened and weakened hydrogen bonds, __________ the dielectric constant, and increases the attraction between charges and less ion availability --> muscle contraction is affected

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permanent dipole

a molecule that is made up of atoms with largely different electronegativity values and therefore results in an electron distribution that results in a permanent partial positive and partial negative portions of the molecule

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induced dipole

a molecule whose atoms generally do not result in a partial charge but do allow for a change in electron distribution when a neighboring charge is nearby, thus inducing a dipole in the molecule

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hemoglobin

The affinity that ________________ has on oxygen is decreased when the pH of the solution is decreased.

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lower

When the solution is at a _______ pH, hemoglobin tends to release more oxygen because it doesn't have as much affinity to keep the oxygen bound to the heme group.

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7.4

physiological pH

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lungs, kidneys

organs that regulate blood pH

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Arrhenius acid

molecule that releases protons in water

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Arrhenius base

molecule that releases hydroxide ions in water

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Bronsted-Lowry acid

molecule that donates an H+ to another molecule

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Bronsted-Lowry base

molecule that accepts H+ from another molecule

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Lewis acid

molecule that accepts a pair of electrons from other molecules

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Lewis base

molecule that donates a pair of electrons to other molecules

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large

acids with ________________ Kas are strong

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small

acids with __________________ pKas are strong

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1

when selecting a buffer for a solution, use a weak acid/base that has a pKa/b within ____ pH unit(s) of the target pH

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pKa

pH = ___ + log([A-]/[HA])

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acidosis

abnormally high acidity of the blood and other body tissues (low pH)

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respiratory acidosis

caused by diseases of the respiratory system; patients cannot eliminate CO2 from the blood effectively

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metabolic acidosis

caused by the release of acidic substances into the bloodstream (i.e. exercising & lactic acid, diabetes & ketoacids)

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alkalosis

abnormally high alkalinity of the blood and other body tissues (high pH)

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respiratory alkalosis

caused by hyperventilation

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metabolic alkalosis

caused by vomiting, ingesting baking soda/tums, kidney failure

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saturated

fatty acid with no double bonds in the tail

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unsaturated

fatty acid with double bonds in the tail

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(head:tail), (c or t), delta, (carbons with double bonds)

naming fatty acids

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triacylglycerols

glycerol backbone with three fatty acyl groups; used for energy storage in animals

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liquid

unsaturated fatty acids tend to be ________________ at room temperature

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solid

saturated fatty acids tend to be ___________ at room temperature

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phospholipid

glycerol-3-phosphate backbone with two fatty acyl groups attached by an ester linkage to glycerol carbons 1 and 2

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sphingolipid

consist of an 18-carbon amino-alcohol backbone rather than glycerol

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glycerophospholipids

significant fraction of the membrane derived of glycerol-3-phosphate and composed of 2 acyl side chains R1 and R2 derived from fatty acids and 1 hydrophilic R3 group

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cholesterol

steroid lipid found in membranes that changes the permeability of the membrane

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decreases

at high temperatures, cholesterol ______________ membrane fluidity

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increases

at low temperatures, cholesterol ______________ membrane fluidity

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saponification

the process in which triglycerides are combined with a strong base to form fatty acid metal salts during the soap-making process

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myelin

a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers; made up of 75% lipid and 25% protein

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inner mitochondrial membrane

made up of about 25% lipid and 75% protein

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compartmentalization, structure, regulation, communication

functions of the membrane

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PI

greater than 10% of membrane lipid in bran, primary source of signaling metabolites (arachidonic acid, DAG, phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIP2 and IP3))

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PE

higher levels in CNS, smaller head group allows tiger packing, capable of hydrogen bonding

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PC

higher levels in plasma membrane, present in lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), produces DAG and acetylcholine

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PS

found in inner leaflet except during apoptosis, movement to outer leaflet is accomplished by functional scramblase and non-functional flippase, provides charged surface for prothrombinase complexes to bind

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CL

only found in mitochondrial membranes, 20% of mitochondrial lipids, sensitive to oxidative damage, contains 4 fatty acyl chains

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flippase

enzyme that flips membrane PL inward; requires ATP

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floppase

enzyme that flops PL out (particularly PS)

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scramblase

enzyme that causes random redistribution of membrane PL

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Asp, Glu, Lys, Arg, His

amino acids with charged polar side chains

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pKa

when the pH of a solution is close to the ____ of a form of an amino acid, that form is the predominant form

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lipid raft

an area in the membrane where there is a high concentration of cholesterol, and a different composition of carbohydrates, proteins and other lipids compared to the rest of the membrane

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