Module 2

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Neurons

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Psychology

64 Terms

1

Neurons

Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to preform information-processing tasks.

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2

Soma

Manufactures big and small cell bodies as well as Proteins. Responsible for continuous renewal of cell components

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3

Dendrite

The part of a neuron that receives information [signals] from other neurons and relays it to the cell body.

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4

Axon

The part of a neuron that transmits information to neighboring cells

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5

Myelin Sheath

An insulating layer of fatty material.

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6

Glial cells

Support cells found in the nervous system. Provides scaffolding for efficient neurotransmission

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7

Synapse

The space or region between the axon of one neuron that transfers electric activity

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8

Sensory neurons

Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord.

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9

Motor neurons

Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement.

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10

Interneurons

Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, and other interneurons.

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11

Resting potential

The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane. Neurons are not stimulated

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12

Action potential

An electric impulse that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse.

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13

Absolute Refractory period

The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.

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14

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse enabling transfer of chemical messages

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15

Receptors

Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal.

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16

Acetylcholine (ACh)

A neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control. Activates muscle action

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17

Dopamine

A neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal.

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18

Glutamate

A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain. Memory

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19

GABA (gamma-aminobutric acid)

The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Calming

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20

Serotonin

Well-being and Happiness. Influences sleep and Digestive system

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21

Endorphins

Chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain. Euphoria

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22

Agonists

Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.

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23

Antagonists

Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.

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24

Nervous system

An interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.

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25

Central nervous system

The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

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26

Peripheral nervous system

The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.

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27

Somatic nervous system

A set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system. Voluntary movement

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28

Autonomic nervous system

A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.

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29

Sympathetic nervous system

A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations. Fight or Flight

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30

Parasympathetic nervous system

A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.

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31

Spinal reflexes

Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.

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32

Hindbrain

An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.

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33

Medulla

An extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration.

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34

Reticular Activating System

A brain structure that controls consciousness, response, and movement

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35

Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that balances and controls fine motor skills.

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36

Pons

A brain structure that conveys information from the cortex to the cerebellum

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37

Cerebral cortex

The outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres.

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38

Limbic system

A group of forebrain structures including the septum, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.

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39

Thalamus

A subcortical structure that relays information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex. Gateway from sense organs

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40

Hypothalamus

A subcortical structure that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. Regulates endocrine system

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41

Pituitary gland

The "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.

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42

Hippocampus

A structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex. Memory indexer

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43

Amygdala

A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.

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44

Basal ganglia

A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements. Brain’s reward circuit

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45

Corpus callosum

A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.

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46

Occipital lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that interprets visual stimuli and recognition

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47

Parietal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing tactile sensory

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48

Temporal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.

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49

Frontal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement.

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50

Gene

The unit of hereditary transmission.

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51

Chromosomes

Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration.

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52

Neuropeptides

Natural occurring opioids causing Pain reduction and Euphoria; Endorphins

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53

Anandamide

Pain Reduction, Memory, Sleep

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54

Norepinephrine

Neurotransmitter responsible for Brain arousal, mood, hunger, sleep

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55

Nodes of Ranvier

Notches between Myelin Sheats facilitating saltatory conduction of Axon impulses

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56

Synaptic Vessels

Terminal Buttons containing neurotransmitter

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57

Oligodendrocyte

Produces Myelin Sheats

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58

Psychoactive Drugs

Affecting directly production and inhibition if specific neurotransmitters

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59

Endocrine System

Contains hormone secreting glands

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60

Hormones

Molecules influencing emotions and stress

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61

Adrenal Gland

Gland Releases adrenaline and cortisol during arousal

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Thyroid Gland

Gland responsible for Metabolism

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63

Sexual Reproductive Gland

Gland that contains Testosterone and Estrogen

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64

Neuroplasticity

Nerve system’s ability to change, adapt, and modify over time

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