OTA 110 Human Development

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Why do we study human development?

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206 Terms
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Why do we study human development?

To understand changes that occur throughout life & be able to provide age-appropriate activities

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What is The World Health Organization (WHO)?

United Nations specialized agency in 1948 with international cooperation organize epidemic control, quarantine measures, drug standardization, promoting the highest possible level of health (“a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.")

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What is included in the International Classification of Disease (ICD)?

Trends, diagnostic classification system, and causes of death.

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Explain the International Classification of Function, Disability, and Health (ICF)?

The mainstreaming of disability as a recognized universal human experience, with health and disability in a new light. As any and every person can experience a fall in health and some range of disablement. The main concept of health focus over disability.

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What is the OT vision for 2025?

“As an inclusive profession, occupational therapy maximizes health, well-being, and quality of life for all people, populations, and communities through effective solutions that facilitate participation in everyday living.”

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Phonology is?

The arrangement of sounds. Created from individual sounds called phonemes to manifest words for meaningful dialogue.

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Morphology is?

The structure of words.

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Syntax is?

The arrangement of words which give it meaning.

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Pragmatics is?

The rational thought of the flow and conduct of discussion that is allowed in a specific environment or situation.

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What is the sensitive period for language development?

Birth to 3 months

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What is the Prelinguistic Development? (0-12 months)

Infancy communication of initially crying to express emotion or signify basic needs. Then begin to coo and create consonant-vowel sounds which start babbling and imitating attempts with features that give rhythm, pitch, length, and loudness to speech.

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What is Unintentional Communication?

Cues that give information to others, whether it be by non-verbal or verbal expression.

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What is Intentional Communication?

The comprehension of individuals within different cultures and how they behavior, talk, and view the world.

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What is Unconventional Communication?

Email, video/voice calls, text, etc.

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What is Conventional Communication?

Letters, Books, Drawings.

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What is Symbolic Communication? (12-24 months)

The development of non-verbal and verbal communication with a shared message between sender and receiver using abstract and concrete symbols.

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What is Linguistic Development? (12-48 months)

The start of first languages with one-word utterances, then later become two-word, then small phrases with little structure. Gaining the comprehension of the relationship of subject-verb-object for phrases to gain meaning.

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What is Sentence Embedding? (41-46 months)

The creation of short phrases from limited pragmatics and syntax. And the connection of sentences is learned.

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What is Speech Apraxia?

Motor Control Disorder

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What is Dysarthria?

Slurred or slowed speech

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Culture is?

Learnt, localized, patterned, confers meaning & values, persistent yet adaptive.

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What is Egalitarianism?

Belief in the equality of all people

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What is Cultural Competency?

The ability to comprehend, appreciate, and interact with others of different beliefs and cultures in contrast to one's own

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What is Cultural Humility?

According to The National Institutes of Health (NIH), “a lifelong process of self-reflection and self-critique whereby the individual not only learns about another's culture, but one starts with an examination of her/his own beliefs and cultural identities.”

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What is Cultural Fluidity?

Person's ability to understand the impact of cultural differences on occupation.

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What is Gary Kielhofner's definition for culture?

“the beliefs and perception, values and norms, and customs and behaviors that are shared by a group of society and are passed from one generation to the next through both formal and informal education”

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What is Cultural Pluralism?

The celebration of culture, for they are believed to add to society.

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What is a Monochromatic use of time?

The perception of being aware of the importance of using time, aka conscious of its worth.

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What is a Polychromic use of time?

The perception of being lazy or using time without purpose or goal.

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What are High Context Cultures?

The shared moments of relationships having more value than words.

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What are Low Context cultures?

The necessity for clear, distinct verbal communication and dialogue in relationships.

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What are the steps for ethical considerations?

Awareness, Reflection, Support, & Action.

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What is Developmental Theory?

The changes over a lifetime that is viewed as the interaction of a child's origin and maturation, treatment, the surrounding community, and culture.

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What areas are in the Affective Domain?

Feeling, temperament, and personality.

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What is the ID?

The origin of basic human motivations for basic needs

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What is Superego?

The symbolic interpretation of parental and societal values and rules.

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What is Ego?

The balance and mediator for the ID, Superego, and the world. The moral compass towards retrieving basic needs.

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What is the Latency Phase of Freud's Psychosexual stages? (6 years old to purberty?

The resolution of the Oedipus & Electra complexes, and the liberty to create relationships with other people.

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What is the order of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Genital

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Explain Lawerence Kohlberg's Moral Development

The developmental process for moral reasoning requires social learning, cognitive development, and temperament. Necessary to avoid the consequences of the law to uphold society and apply to the conscience.

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What are the 9 traits of temperament?

Sensory Threshold, Activity Level, Intensity, Rhythmicity, Adaptability, Mood, Approach/Withdrawal, Persistence, and Distractibility.

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What is Intensity?

The expressiveness of a kid

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What is rhythmicity?

The predictability of bodily function

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What is approach/withdrawal?

The reaction to new environments or situations by children

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How does John Bowlby explain Attachment?

The promotion of survival from the connection of an infant to their caregiver. The creation of affectionate bonds from the start of a set of innate signs that call over the adult.

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Explain secure attachment style children.

The healthiest relationship between guardian and child. The ability to cope with loneliness, ask for assistance, and communicate well.

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Explain avoidant attachment style children?

Difficulty in being vulnerable in relationships, most comfortable with independence.

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Explain ambivalent style children?

Problems with trusting others, having an unhealthy attachment from insecurity. Inconsistently raised or neglected.

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What is Piaget's Cognitive Theory?

The natural desire for children to learn, by their experiences which creation knowledge of the world.

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Schema is?

The kind of knowledge and the process of receiving knowledge that help interpretations and comprehensions of the world.

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What is Assimilation?

The supplement of new data to the current knowledge base, occasionally reinterpreting new experiences to fit with past information.

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What is Accomodation?

The adaptation and change of existing knowledge base reacting to new experience, that change or replace concepts based on new data.

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What is the Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development? (Birth - 2 years old)

Infants gain knowledge of the world is gained from sensations and motions like sucking, listening, and looking. Object permanence is learned. The understanding of separation of themselves from the objects and people around them. Cause & Effect. The mix of accommodation and assimilation.

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What is the Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development? (2-7 years old)

The start of symbolic thinking and utilizing new words and images to represent objects. Egocentric, still tend to ponder about objects very concretely.

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What is the Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development? (7-11 years old)

The logical thought process of concrete events. Being able to comprehend the idea of conservation. Start of inductive reasoning utilizing specific data to a general concept.

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What is the Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development? (12+)

The start of abstract thought and hypotheticals. Moral, ethical, social, philosophical, and political issues are pondered over with abstract and theoretical reasoning. Deductive reasoning begins with general principles coming from specific data.

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What is John Dewey's Theory of Progressive Education?

The concept of education molds a child's development. That education should teach in more informal settings that promote exploration and growth as well as problem solving over rote memorization.

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What are Gesell Schedules?

The standards for child development based on maturation and heredity.

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What is Robert Sears psychoanalytic theory?

The necessary learning, physical growth, and social requirements to learn from social interactions.

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Trust vs Mistrust (0-1 years old)

At this stage, babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she might grow up with a general mistrust of the world.

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Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (2-3 years old)

As toddlers, children begin to develop independence and start to learn that they can do some things on their own (such as going to the toilet). If a child is not encouraged properly at this age, he or she might develop shame and doubt about their abilities.

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Initiative vs Guilt (4-6 years old)

As preschoolers, children continue to develop more independence and start to do things of their own initiative. If a child is not able to take initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks, he or she might develop guilt over their needs and desires.

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Industry vs Inferiority (7-12 years old)

Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self- confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.

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Identity vs Role Confusion (13-19 years old)

Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self- confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.

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Intimacy vs Isolation (20-34 years old)

During early adulthood most people fall in love, get married and start building their own family. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships), they will probably develop feelings of isolation.

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Generativity vs Stagnation (35-65 years old)

This is the longest period of a human's life. It is the stage in which people are usually working and contributing to society in some way and perhaps raising their children. If a person does not find proper ways to be productive during this period, they will probably develop feelings of stagnation.

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Integrity vs Despair (65+)

As senior citizens, people tend to look back on their lives and think about what they have or have not accomplished. If a person has led a productive life, they will develop a feeling of integrity. If not, they might fall into despair.

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What is Mitosis?

DNA duplication via two identical diploid daughter cells

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What is Meiosis?

DNA cell duplication by four haploid cells

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What is an Allele?

Gene or set of genes inhabiting the same place.

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What is genotype?

The allele combinations for a specific gene

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What is phenotype?

The physical traits impacted by genotype.

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What are the side effects of taking psychoactive drugs when pregnant?

Slowed fetal growth and risk increase for premature labor.

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What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?

Conditions resulting from withdraw of drugs exposed to when infant was in the womb.

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What is the Fetal Alcohol Effect?

The result of the increase of miscarriage, developmental delay, and hyperactivity in the child from a small to moderate amount of alcohol consumption around 2-4 drinks frequently.

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What is Oligohydramnios?

An insufficient amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus

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What is Polyhydramnios?

Excessive amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus

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APGAR SCALE

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, & Respiration

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Neonatal Period

The first four weeks

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What is the Ductus Arteriosus?

Opening between the pulmonary artery and aorta of the heart

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What is the Foramen Ovale?

Opening between the wall that separates the right and left atria of the heart.

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What is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

Common in premature babies, is when the ductus does not close causing too much blood around the heart to circulate, pulmonary hypertension, weakening and enlargement of the heart, and may cause SOB and cyanosis.

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What is Patent Foramen Ovale?

As seen in some babies with Down Syndrome, a tiny clot occurs when the hole in the heart the atrium septum does not close causing an increase in BP around the chest, a mix of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood, and increased chances of stroke.

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What is formed when RBCs break down?

Bilirubin

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