AP Lit Poetic terms

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82 Terms

1

Acrostic

Poetry in which certain letters, usually the first in each line, form a word or message when read in a sequence.

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Anapest

unstressed, unstressed, stressed

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3

Apostrophe

is a direct address to someone who is not actually present in the text

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4

Ballad

Poetry which has three stanzas of seven, eight, or ten lines and a shorter final stanza of four or five. All stanzas end with the same one line refrain

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5

Ballad stanza

consists of four lines with a rhyme scheme of a-b-c-b. The first and third lines are tetrameter and the second and fourth are trimeter.

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6

Blank verse

a poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameter

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7

Burlesque

Poetry that treats a serious subject as humor.

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8

Cacophony; Dissonance

harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony.

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9

Cadence

Rhythm

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10

Caesura

a strong pause within a line of verse

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11

Canzone

Medieval Italian lyric style poetry with five or six stanzas and a shorter ending stanza

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12

Cinquain

Poetry with five lines. Line 1 has one word (the title). Line 2 has two words that describe the title. Line 3 has three words that tell the action. Line 4 has four words that express the feeling, and line 5 has one word which recalls the title.

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13

Classicism

Poetry which holds the principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature.

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14

Closed form poetry

has an established pattern, whether with length, meter, rhyme, imagery, syntax, or stanzas

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15

Closed forms

Allow the reader more access to the organization of ideas expressed in the poem AND can be purposefully changed by the author, adding complexity to the meaning

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16

Couplet

a rhymed pair of lines

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17

Dactyl

contains three syllables with the stress on the first syllable

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18

dramatic monologue

A type of poem which is spoken to the listener. The speaker addresses a specific topic while the listener unwittingly reveals details about themselves.

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19

Elegy

A sad and thoughtful poem about the death of an individual

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20

English/Shakespearean sonnet

consists of 3 quatrains and a couplet, usually rhyming abab cdcd efef gg

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21

Enjambment

the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.

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22

Epic

An extensive, serious poem that tells the story about a heroic figure

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23

Epigram

A very short, ironic and witty poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain

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24

Epitaph

a commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument about the person buried at that site.

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25

Epithalamium (Epithalamion)

A poem written in honor of the bride and groom.

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26

Examples of closed-form poetry

Ballad, haiku, epigram, sestina, sonnets, villanille

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27

Explication

The interpretation or analysis of a text.

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28

feminine rhyme (double rhyme)

occurs when the last two syllables of a word rhyme with another word

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29

Foot

A metrical unit composed of stressed and unstressed syllables.

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30

Free verse

Poetry written in either rhyme or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern

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31

Haiku

a Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five, traditionally evoking images of the natural world.

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32

Heptameter

7 feet

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33

heroic couplet

Two consecutive lines of rhyming poetry that are written in iambic pentameter and that contain a complete thought.

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34

Hexameter

6 feet

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35

Horatian Ode

Short lyric poem written in two or four-line stanzas, each with its the same metrical pattern, often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love and the practice of poetry. It is named after its creator, Horace.

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36

Iambic pentameter

One short syllable followed by one long one, repeated five times in a row. Example: la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH

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37

Idyll

Poetry that either depicts a peaceful, idealized country scene or a long poem telling a story about heroes of a bye gone age.

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38

If the AP exam asks for poetic forms, what does it mean?

Types of stanzas: regular stanza, Terza rima, heroic couplet, ballad stanza, limerick, rhyme (rime) royal, ottava rima, Spencerian, ballad, haiku, epigram, sestina, sonnets (both), villanille, etc

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39

Irregular (Pseudo-Pindaric or Cowleyan) ode

Neither the three part form of the pindaric ode nor the two or four-line stanza of the Horatian ode. It is characterized by irregularity of verse and structure and lack of coorespondence between the parts.

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40

Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet

Fourteen-line poem divided into two parts: the first is eight lines (abbaabba) and the second is six (cdcdcd or cdecde)

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41

Italian sonnet

a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

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42

Lay

A long narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels called trouveres.

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43

Limerick

A short sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines. Lines 1, 2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables, rhyme and have the same verbal rhythm. The 3rd and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme and have the same rhythm

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44

Litotes (understatement)

A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite

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45

Lyric

A poem that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet

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46

Masculine rhyme (single rhyme)

A rhyme in which the stress is on the final syllable of the words (rhyme, sublime)

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47

Memoriam stanza

A quatrain in iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of abba -- named after the pattern used by Lord Tennyson.

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48

Meter

A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry

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49

Metonymy

A figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.

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50

Narrative

a poem that tells a story

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51

Octave

8 line stanza

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52

octometer

8 feet

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53

Ode

A lengthy lyric poem typically of a serious or meditative nature and having an elevated style and formal stanza structure.

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54

Open form

A type of structure or form in poetry characterized by freedom from regularity and consistency in such elements as rhyme, line length, metrical pattern, and overall poetic structure.

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55

Open form poetry

Characterized by lack of pattern; content creates the form

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56

ottava rima

an eight-line rhyming stanza of a poem

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57

Pastoral

A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, idealized way.

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58

Pentameter

five feet

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59

Petrarchan

A 14-line sonnet consisting of an octave rhyming abbaabba followed by a sestet of cddcee or cdecde

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60

Pindaric Ode

A ceremonious poem consisting of a strophe (two or more lines repeated as a unit) followed by an antistrophe with the same metrical pattern and concluding with a summary line (an epode) in a different meter. Named after Pindar, a Greek professional lyrist of the 5th century B.C.

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61

Quatrain

A stanza or poem consisting of 4 lines. Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme wile having a similar number of syllables

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62

quintet

a five line stanza

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63

Refrain

A line or set of lines repeated several times over the course of a poem.

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64

Rhime Royal

A type of poetry consisting of stanzas having seven lines in a lambic pentameter

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65

Rhyme

A rhythmic poem has the repetition of the same or similar sounds of 2 or more words, often at the end of a line

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66

Rime Royal stanza

A stanza consisting of seven lines in lambic pentameter rhyming a-b-a-b-b-c-c. It is called so because king James used it

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67

Rondeau

A lyrical poem of French origin having 10 or 13 lines with two rhymes and with the opening phrase repeated twice as the refrain.

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68

Septet

7 line stanza

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69

Sestet

6 line stanza

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70

Sestina

A poem consisting of six six-line stanzas and a three-line envoy. The end words of the first stanza are repeated in varied order as end words in the other stanzas and also recur in the envoy.

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71

Shakespearean

A 14-line sonnet consisting of three quatrains of abab cdcd efef followed by a couplet, gg. Shakespearean sonnets generally use iambic pentameter.

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72

Shifts typically contain certain words such as:

For,but,yet,ect

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73

Sonnet

A lyric poem of 14 lines, commonly written with unconventional rhyme schemes

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74

Spencerian Sonnet

a sonnet in which the lines are grouped into three interlocked quatrains and a couplet and the rhyme scheme is abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee.

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75

Sponsee/Spondaic

Consists of 2 stressed syllables. Compound words are examples. Ex: heartbreak, Childhood, Football

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76

Tercets

3 line stanzas

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77

Terza rima

A type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line tercets.

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78

Tetrameter

4 feet

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79

Trochee (trochaic)

stressed, unstressed

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80

Verse

A single metrical line of poetry

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81

Villanelle

A 19-line poem consisting of five tercets and a final quatrain on two rhymes. The first and third lines of the first tercet repeat alternately as a refrain closing the succeeding stanzas and joined as the final couplet of the quatrain.

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82

Volta

the shift or point of dramatic change in a poem

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