Unit 14 Social Psychology

studied byStudied by 10 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Social Psychology

1 / 59

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

60 Terms

1

Social Psychology

The scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of people are influenced by the presence of others.

<p>The scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of people are influenced by the presence of others.</p>
New cards
2

Attribution Theory

Explaining (attributing) someone's behavior by either the situation the person is in OR the person's disposition (characteristic/personality) by FRITZ HEIDER

<p>Explaining (attributing) someone's behavior by either the situation the person is in OR the person's disposition (characteristic/personality) by FRITZ HEIDER</p>
New cards
3

Fundamental Attribution Error

A tendency when explaining (attributing) someone's behavior, we make the mistake by underestimating the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of the person's disposition (characteristic/personality)

<p>A tendency when explaining (attributing) someone's behavior, we make the mistake by underestimating the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of the person's disposition (characteristic/personality)</p>
New cards
4

Attitude

A feeling of liking/disliking something/someone that can influence our behavior.

<p>A feeling of liking/disliking something/someone that can influence our behavior.</p>
New cards
5

Peripheral Route Persuasion

Changing someone's attitude through means NOT related to LOGIC; instead appealing to fears, desires, and associations. This occurs when individuals lack the motivation or the capability to understand the speaker's message.

<p>Changing someone's attitude through means NOT related to LOGIC; instead appealing to fears, desires, and associations. This occurs when individuals lack the motivation or the capability to understand the speaker's message.</p>
New cards
6

Central Route Persuasion

Changing someone's attitude through means focused on facts and the content of the message. It's analytical and uses evidence.

<p>Changing someone's attitude through means focused on facts and the content of the message. It's analytical and uses evidence.</p>
New cards
7

Foot-in-the-Door

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

<p>the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.</p>
New cards
8

Role

Set of expectations about the ways in which people are supposed to behave in different situations.

<p>Set of expectations about the ways in which people are supposed to behave in different situations.</p>
New cards
9

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

We act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent (doesn't match) by LEON FESTINGER.

<p>We act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent (doesn't match) by LEON FESTINGER.</p>
New cards
10

Conformity

adjusting one's behavior/thinking to match with a group.

<p>adjusting one's behavior/thinking to match with a group.</p>
New cards
11

Normative Social Influence

Conforming because of a desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

<p>Conforming because of a desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.</p>
New cards
12

Social Facilitation

Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.

<p>Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.</p>
New cards
13

Social Loafing

a phenomenon whereby individuals become LESS productive (put in less effort) when in groups

<p>a phenomenon whereby individuals become LESS productive (put in less effort) when in groups</p>
New cards
14

Deindividuation

the LOSS of SELF-AWARENESS and SELF-RESTRAINT occurring in group situations that foster arousal and ANONYMITY.

<p>the LOSS of SELF-AWARENESS and SELF-RESTRAINT occurring in group situations that foster arousal and ANONYMITY.</p>
New cards
15

Group Polarization

the tendency for a group to make decisions that are MORE EXTREME than the initial inclination of its members.

<p>the tendency for a group to make decisions that are MORE EXTREME than the initial inclination of its members.</p>
New cards
16

Groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group OVERRIDES a realistic evaluation of other options.

<p>the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group OVERRIDES a realistic evaluation of other options.</p>
New cards
17

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

<p>the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next</p>
New cards
18

Norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior.

<p>an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior.</p>
New cards
19

Prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.

<p>an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.</p>
New cards
20

Stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

<p>a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.</p>
New cards
21

Discrimination

Unjustifiable negative BEHAVIOR toward a group and its members.

<p>Unjustifiable negative BEHAVIOR toward a group and its members.</p>
New cards
22

Just-World Phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

<p>the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.</p>
New cards
23

Ingroup

"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.

<p>"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.</p>
New cards
24

Outgroup

"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.

<p>"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.</p>
New cards
25

Ingroup Bias

the tendency to favor our own group.

<p>the tendency to favor our own group.</p>
New cards
26

Scapegoat Theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

<p>the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.</p>
New cards
27

Other-Race Effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias

<p>the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias</p>
New cards
28

Aggression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.

<p>physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.</p>
New cards
29

Social Script

Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.

<p>Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.</p>
New cards
30

Frustration-Aggression Principle

the principle that frustration (how you get when your attempt to achieve a goal is blocked) creates anger, which can generate aggression.

<p>the principle that frustration (how you get when your attempt to achieve a goal is blocked) creates anger, which can generate aggression.</p>
New cards
31

Mere Exposure Effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to new stimuli increases liking of them.

<p>the phenomenon that repeated exposure to new stimuli increases liking of them.</p>
New cards
32

Passionate Love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.

<p>an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.</p>
New cards
33

Companionate Love

long-lasting relationship experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being

<p>long-lasting relationship experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being</p>
New cards
34

Equity

fairness

<p>fairness</p>
New cards
35

Self-Disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

<p>revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.</p>
New cards
36

Altruism

unselfish concern for the welfare of others

<p>unselfish concern for the welfare of others</p>
New cards
37

Bystander Effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be LESS LIKELY to give aid if other bystanders are present.

<p>the tendency for any given bystander to be LESS LIKELY to give aid if other bystanders are present.</p>
New cards
38

Social Exchange Theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

<p>the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.</p>
New cards
39

Reciprocity Norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. Help them because they helped you.

<p>an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. Help them because they helped you.</p>
New cards
40

Social-Responsibility Norm

an expectation that people will help those who need help the most

<p>an expectation that people will help those who need help the most</p>
New cards
41

Conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

<p>a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.</p>
New cards
42

Social Trap

a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole

<p>a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole</p>
New cards
43

Mirror-Image Perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, like when each side sees itself as good and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.

<p>mutual views often held by conflicting people, like when each side sees itself as good and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.</p>
New cards
44

Self Fulfilling Prophecy

a belief that leads to its own fulfillment

<p>a belief that leads to its own fulfillment</p>
New cards
45

Superordinate Goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

<p>shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.</p>
New cards
46

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT)

A strategy designed to decrease international tensions.

<p>A strategy designed to decrease international tensions.</p>
New cards
47

Solomon Asch

Studied conformity with his "Line Experiment."

<p>Studied conformity with his "Line Experiment."</p>
New cards
48

Leon Festinger

American social psychologist known for his work in cognitive dissonance.

<p>American social psychologist known for his work in cognitive dissonance.</p>
New cards
49

Stanley Milgram

Conducted a controversial "shock" experiment on obedience. He was interested in the obedience of Nazi soldiers during WWII and if their behaviors could be repeated with American citizens.

<p>Conducted a controversial "shock" experiment on obedience. He was interested in the obedience of Nazi soldiers during WWII and if their behaviors could be repeated with American citizens.</p>
New cards
50

Philip Zimbardo

Famous for his Stanford Prison Experiment, which studied the psychological effects of being a prisoner or prison guard (role-playing, obedience, conformity, groupthink, etc).

<p>Famous for his Stanford Prison Experiment, which studied the psychological effects of being a prisoner or prison guard (role-playing, obedience, conformity, groupthink, etc).</p>
New cards
51

self-serving bias

the tendency to perceive oneself favorably.

<p>the tendency to perceive oneself favorably.</p>
New cards
52

low-ball technique

2-step strategy in which the influencer secures agreement with a request by understating the true cost.

New cards
53

door-in-the-face

persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted

<p>persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted</p>
New cards
54

Fritz Heider

Proposed the attribution theory.

<p>Proposed the attribution theory.</p>
New cards
55

informational social influence

Conforming because we take group's comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct, proper, or effective.

<p>Conforming because we take group's comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct, proper, or effective.</p>
New cards
56

What % of subjects in Asch's Line Experiment conformed to the group's "wrong" answer?

37% (About 1 out of 3 people)

New cards
57

When are people MORE likely to conform?

They like the group's status or find them attractive. They're incompetent or insecure.

New cards
58

Would a person coming from an individualistic culture or a collectivistic culture be MORE LIKELY to conform?

Collectivistic

New cards
59

In Milgram's Shock Experiment, what % of subjects went ALL the way to 450-volts to shock their "students"?

65% (about 2 out of 3 people)

New cards
60

When is obedience HIGHEST?

1. the person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure.
2. the authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution.
3. the victim was depersonalized or at a distance, even in another room
4. there were no role models for defiance

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 52 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 122 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34899 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(185)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard145 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard114 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)