Psychology

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Why is psych studied

  • gain incite in relationships and communication

  • understand how you become who you are today

  • help people overcome problems

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research psychology

discover new knowledge in the field through research and study

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applied psychology

apply knowledge in institutions and often work in it

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clinical psychology

work in mental clinics, hopsitals

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psychiatrists

  • medical doctor

  • prescribe medicine

  • conduct psychotherapy

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psychologists

  • extensive training in research or clinical practice

  • specialize in psychological testing and evaluation

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goal of psych

  1. describe behaviour 2. explain behaviour 3. predict behaviour 4. control behaviour

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wave of psychology

the changes and different forms of psychology over time

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Structuralism

William Wundt- Established 1st formal psychological laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany

  • study consciousness- how elements of the mind were organized and related

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functionalism

William Jamws- Created the 1st distinctly American school of Psychology

  • How does the mind affect what people do

  • understanding how consciousness (thoughts and feeling) function to help people adapt to their environments

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Gestalt

Max Westheimer

  • Focused on how we feel, but on how we experience the world.

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Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud (early 1900s)

  • During this time period people believed that most of your feelings come from hidden places in your mind called the unconscious.

  • We protect ourselves from our real feelings by using defensive mechanisms.

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Behaviourism

Focuses on how people act- feelings are irrelevant (early-mid1900)

  • Very popular during the conservative 1950s when social appearance mattered more than self expression

  • Conformity was expected

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Eclectic

Psychologists pick and choose what theories to use depending on the situation and the client

Wave six is made up of 7 different perspectives.

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wave 6: Psychodynamic

we repress many of our true feelings, not aware of them

behaviour is understood by looking at childhood

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wave 6: Cognitive

Emphasizes on how you think (attention, perceive, remember, think, solve problems)

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wave 6: Behaviourist

behaviour is shaped by the learning process

  • All learning and therefore behaviour is a result of observation, conditioning and rewards/punishments

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wave 6: Humanistic

human growth, potential, and self-concept

  • how to be self actualized

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wave 6: Biopsychology

how brain and body make memories, thoughts, emotions

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wave 6: evolutionary

natural selection process has caused behaviour to develop/adapt

  • how does evolution affect behavioural tendencies

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wave 6: Sociocultural

Major influence on peoples behaviour, thought processes, and emotions are other people and the society they have created

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malsow’s hierarchy of needs

physiology needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization

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psychotherapy

  • Focus on the present and the future (rather than past)

  • Value conscious thoughts (rather unconscious)

  • Believe that people are basically good and have a need to self actualize

  • Client centred-therapy -focuses on the potential of each person to realize their own growth in self-awareness and self-fulfillment

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impact of humanistic psychology

client centred model is the basis of most practices

  • positive environment, client can explore motivations, behaviour openly

  • active role of client discovering themselves creates self-acceptance

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the behaviorist perspective

behaviour is learned through interaction,

  • ALL behaviour is a result of stimulus that triggers a reaction

  • subconscious is irreverent

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classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov and John Watson

  • Classical condition is one way that all organisms learn to adapt to their environment

  • Learning to link 2 stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction

e.g, stimulus 1: see lighting, stimulus 2: hear thunder → stimulus 1: see lighting, response: cover ears

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neutral stimulus

stimulus that doesnt cause a reaction, can be conditioned to cause one through repetition

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unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response

stimulus that triggers a response naturally without needing to be conditioned

  • The UCR and the CR are the same response, triggered by different events.

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operative conditioning

B.F Skinner

adjusting the consequences of behaviour so we receive desired results

  • positive and negative: to add or take away

  • punishment and reinforcement

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Psychoanalytic Perspective

early childhood experiences influence the unconscious mind and are vital to understanding personality, motivation, behaviour

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Three levels of the mind

conscious: contains thoughts, feelings that we experience at any given moment

preconscious: information that can be retrieved from memory

unconscious: acts as repository for all desires, urges which are mediated by the preconscious

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the human consciousness consists of 3 parts

  1. ID- we are born selfish, instincts are solely for self pleasure

  2. EGO- developed by age 3, begin to realize other people have feelings and must be concious of that. suppresses the urges of ID

  3. SUPEREGO- appears age 5, parents pass down morality

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psycho stages of development

  1. oral (thumb sucking)

  2. anal (response of demand of society, bladder control)

  3. phallic (learning differences of genders)

  4. latency (sexual urges are quiet)

  5. genital (maturely interact with opposite sex)

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different defense mechanisms

  • repression

  • denial

  • projection

  • displacement

  • regression

  • sublimation (satisfying impulse with a substitute object)

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Criticism and contributions of Psychoanalytic Perspective

critique:

  • focuses on sexuality as the driver of personality

  • too subjective and simplistic

  • hetero-normative

contributions:

  • many parts of theory are present in modern society

  • Freudian slips

  • defense mechanisms

  • starting point of all personality tests

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cognitive perspective

how internal thoughts/feelings influence behaviour

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Cognitive psychology

analyzes the way people take in info and how that dictates their behaviour

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Jean Piaget

  • stages of cognitive development

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albert bandura

  • part of cognitive revolution- moving away from behaviorist thoughts

  • social cognitive theory- Ones personality takes their motivation, environment and behaviour into account

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parts of memory

sensory: lasts only for an instant, uses senses to take in info

working: holds meaningful info for short time

long-term: relatively permanent, limitless, memories can be retrieved through cues

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