APHUG Unit 3

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culture

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Tags and Description

122 Terms

1

culture

group's learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, objects of nation/social group

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2

long-lot settlement

linear settlement pattern in each farmstead is situated at long rectangular plots of farmland to give equal access to the river

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3

material culture

physical objects made and used by members of culture group, visible

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4

nonmaterial culture

intangible wide range of beliefs, values, myths, and symbolic measurings passed from generation to generation within society

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5

cultural trait

units of transmission that permits diffusion and create tradition, impact how ppl perceive a place and act in that place

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6

local/folk culture

generally more rural, ethnically homogenous, connected to local land, pass traditions, slow/resistant to change, regionally distinct

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7

indigenous culture

subset to local cultures, no longer dominant ethnic group within traditional homeland bc migration, colonialism, etc

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8

popular culture

heterogeneous, more influenced by key urban areas, quick to adopt tech

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9

cultural attitude

attitudes in society shaped by cultural opinions, beliefs, perspectives

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10

language

mutually agreed-upon system of symbolic communication, integral part of cultural identity, essence of human culture, identity, spreads ideas

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11

polyglot

those fluent in more than 2 languages

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12

code switching

note that cultural contact affects how ppl behave in public, how they speak to others

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13

religion

dimension of identity, a structured set of beliefs & practices through which ppl seek mental and physical harmony

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14

ethnic group

ppl of common ancestry and cultural tradition, strong feeling of group identity, involuntary

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15

race

physical characteristics of a group, reflects cultural ideas abt human difference

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16

ethnic geography

study of spatial aspects of ethnicity

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17

multiculturalism

promoting the active participation & inclusion of minority group in national histories, national policies, culture institutions

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18

cultural relativism

seeks to understand individuals and cultures from a wider perspective of cultural logic, see world in just thru lens of observer

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19

ethnocentric approach

evaluated other cultures from the perspective of the observer's culture, their culture is perceived as most natural or correct, natural benchmark

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20

taboos

behaviors heavily discouraged by culture

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21

imitation

children learn: by repeating sounds

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22

informal instruction

children learn: adult reminds child

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23

formal instruction

children learn: school

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24

cultural regions

broad area where groups share similar but not identical cultural traits (formal functional or vernacular)

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25

cultural landscape

the region is the visible reflection of its culture, reflects local building materials, tech, economic standing, and cultural beliefs, meanings, values, experiments

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26

ethnic enclaves

clusters of ppl of same culture but surrounded by ppl of culture that us dominant in religion

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27

cultural realms

larger areas that include several religions

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28

universalizing

clam to "universal truth" seen as applicable to humans (religion)

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29

sacred spaces

sites of special religious significances, preserved across generation, natural human-made sites that posses religious meaning

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30

memorial spaces

preserved site used to commemorate past

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31

fundamentalism

attempt to follow a literal interpretation of religious faith

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32

theocracies

countries whos governments are run by religious leaders thru the use of religious laws

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33

ethnic religion

group of ppl living in one place & emphasize strong cultural characteristics

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34

universalizing religion

actively seek converts to faith regardless of ethnic background (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam)

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35

pilgrimage

religious journey taken by person to sacred place of their religion

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36

linguist

scientist who studies language

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37

language tree

shows relationship ancestry languages families& suggests how several languages are related to each other, how one grows out

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38

Indo-European

language family that half the world's population speaks; English, French, Spanish, german, Hindi

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39

official language

one designated by law to be language of government

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40

isoglosses

borders of individual word usages or pronunciations

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41

2 largest language families

Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan

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42

physical landscape

all natural physical surroundings that create & shape places we are living in/examining

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43

placelessness

the feeling resulting from the standardization of the built environment

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44

agricultural landscape

dominant features of rural landscapes, powerfully evoke sense of place, part of cultural landscapes

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45

indigenous landscape

architectural forms are indigenous & local to area, better suited directly tied to physical landscape than popular forms

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46

popular forms

architecture that is more widespread & common

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47

postmodern landscapes

architecture that interrupts skyline

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48

modernist architecture

functional, orderly (downtown skyscraper)

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49

postmodern architecture

reaction against rigid common building

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50

sequent occupance

fact that many places have been controlled or affected by a variety of groups over a period of time, reshaped functions or meanings & left behind layers of meaning

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51

linguistic landscapes

publicly displayed words, reveal locally dominant language, indicate bilingualism

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52

secular

less influenced or controlled by religion

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53

subculture

ppl with distinct norms, values, material practices that differ from dominant culture surrounding them

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54

religious buildings

prominent additions to the landscape as they create places to worship & communal gathering place for the community

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55

iconoclasm

destruction of states, monuments, plaques, other religious/political elements

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56

sense of place

ppl's perception abt a place, shaped by elements of cultural landscaoe

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57

"strong sense of place"

places distinct and different than other places

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58

tourism

generating interest around a strong sense of place, crafted image with powerful political and economic implications

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59

placemaking

a variety of efforts that seek to use and design public places to better serve the needs of residents and foster a stronger community

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60

centripetal force

one that brings people together & unifies a neighborhood, society, communioty

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61

centrifugal forces

forces that threaten the union of neighborhood society or country, ppl pull further apart or

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62

secularization

process where by religion becomes less dominant force in everyday life than it was in the past

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63

political instability

ppl want to change the current political borders which do not line up with cultural groupings

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64

diffusion

pattern by which phenomenon spreads from one location to another, bringing idea/practice to new home land

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65

distance decay

limits ability of some cultural traits to diffuse to far away locations

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66

absorbing barriers

barriers that completely halt diffusion of cultural trait

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67

permeable barriers

allows innovations to diffuse partially in weakened way

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68

pidgin language

language with small vocab derived from languages of two or more groups in contact

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69

creole languages

pidgin language acquire fuller vocab and become native languages

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70

lingua franca

language of communication and commerce spoken across wide area, not mother tongue

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71

English

global lingua franca

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72

creolization

linguistic process where languages converge & create new languages and forms of communication

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73

bilingualism

the ability to speak two languages colloquially

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74

empires

sovereign political entities that seek to expand beyond origin territory to control more territory politically and/or economically

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75

imperialism

motivating impulse to control greater amounts of territory

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76

colonicalism

act of forcefully controlling a foreign territory

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77

writing

most influential tech for language, helped civilizations develop and spread

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78

English and French

language of educated elite, holds legal status, lingua franca

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79

urbanization

process of making an area more urban, hierarchy shows the cultural impact of how traits transform and reshape cultures

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80

globalization

process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence & start operations on international scale

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81

ethnic pressure

fitting in but embracing culture

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82

internet

spreads culture, religion, language

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83

time-space convergence

phenomenon where the introduction of how transportation tech reduces the time it takes to travel between places

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84

alphabetic writing system

letters represent discrete sounds, strung together to form word's sounds

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85

syllabic

characters represent blocks of word sounds

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86

logographic

characters represent entire words (Chinese/emojis)

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87

extinct language

few elderly & no speakers

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88

language hotspots

places with most unique misunderstood, endangered tongues, around globe

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89

nonprofit endangered language alliance

department that encourages and teacher endangered languages to prevent death of language

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90

convergence hypothesis

idea that cultures are converging, results in placelessness

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91

glocalization

adapting global practices to fit local culture practices & preferences

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92

cultural hearth

a forces demographic area where important innovations are born and formed which they spread

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93

language family

group of related languages that share common ancestry

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94

dialect

regional variation that makes mutual comprehension possible, locally favored vocab

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95

accent

way of pronouncing words, closely tied to specific cultural religion

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96

3 greatest monotheistic religions

Christianity, Islam, Judaism

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97

Christianity

largest religion, monotheistic, god is trinity; branches: roman Catholics, protestants, eastern Christians

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98

Islam

5 pillars of faith, proselytic faith

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99

2 branches of islam

Shi'ite Muslims, Sunni Muslims

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100

Buddhism

4 noble truths, prince Siddhartha Gautama, reach nirvana(enlightenment)

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