Pre-IB World History 9: First Semester

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Why did the Crusades change Europeans' desire to explore?

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Why did the Crusades change Europeans' desire to explore?

Since the Europeans sought out spices from the Crusades, Italian merchants began transporting these goods over land. However, since it was so far, the goods were marked up severely. While the Italians got rich, most Europeans didn't have access to these luxurious items. Europeans then wanted to have their own trade routes.

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Why did the Renaissance change Europeans' desire to explore?

Because of the idea of humanism that was formed during the Renaissance, people grew curious about what other cultures have achieved and accomplished.

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Why did the Reformation change Europeans' desire to explore?

Religious groups such as the Jesuits valued converting people to their own religion. The Crusades spurred the belief that it was the Europeans' duty to defend and spread their religion.

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Why did Monarchs change Europeans' desire to explore?

Monarchs looked for new sources of wealth. One proven method was to create colonies.

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Why did Technological Advances change Europeans' desire to explore?

Most expeditions at the time ended in disaster, whether it was a broken ship, low supplies, or for other reasons. Thanks to new advances in sailing technology, the likelihood of returning from voyages greatly increased, so more people were willing to explore.

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Why did Fame and Fortune change Europeans' desire to explore?

People not only sought out foreign riches, but also a rank of higher status. Being in league with important people gave people many more opportunities.

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Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?

He was a Portuguese prince who created a Navigational School in 1419. Prince Henry's efforts made the Portuguese the lead in sea exploration.

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What were the subjects that were taught in Prince Henry the Navigator's Navigational School?

Mapmaking, shipbuilding, instrument making, science, and sea captaining.

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Why were mapmakers important for expeditions?

Mapmakers could not only make maps during the expedition, but they also knew how to get from place to place and how to return.

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Why were shipbuilders important for expeditions?

Shipbuilders would not only make ships before they left port, but could also make repairs onboard during the voyage.

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Why were instrument makers important for expeditions?

Instrument makers developed crucial navigation equipment, such as the compass and the astrolabe.

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Why were scientists important for expeditions?

Scientists could interpret scientific things about weather, the ocean, animals, and plants.

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Why were sea captains important for expeditions?

Sea captains would have important leadership and decision making skills for voyagers.

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What was the name of the important new ship that allowed Europeans to travel further by sea?

The caravel. Thanks to triangular sails that let it sail against the wind. It also was smaller and more maneuverable while being stronger.

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What was the astrolabe?

A navigational tool that had over 50 different functions, such as telling the time and direction.

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What was the sextant?

A navigational tool that was an advanced version of the astrolabe. It didn't have as many functions, but had much more accurate directional functions, such as telling the latitude and longitude.

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Why had European countries only partially explored Africa's west coast?

European countries would go only as far as they had to down Africa's west coast for trade before returning home.

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Who was Bartolomeu Dias?

A Portuguese explorer that wanted to spread Christianity and create a trade route to Asia. He only made it to the tip of Africa.

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Why was it hard for Bartolomeu Dias to travel down the African west coast?

Because no European had ever mapped that area; He was going in blindly.

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How did Bartolomeu Dias make it across the Cape of Good Hope?

A storm pushed his ships across.

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Why didn't Bartolomeu Dias reach Asia?

His crew threatened to mutiny.

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Why did Bartolomeu Dias' crew threaten to mutiny?

Because they were exhausted and low on supplies.

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Why was Bartolomeu Dias' discovery of the tip of Africa important?

Because people now knew that it was possible to sail around Africa.

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Who was Vasco da Gama?

A Portuguese captain that established the first trade route with India.

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Why was Bartolomeu Dias' discovery helpful to Vasco da Gama?

Since the west coast of Africa had been charted, da Gama could just go straight down the coast full speed without having to worry about where he was.

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What did Vasco da Gama's decision to put land behind him and try to cut across the Indian Ocean to India so risky?

Not only was he going in blindly, but if da Gama went too far out, he wouldn't be near any land for supplies.

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Where did Vasco da Gama arrive in India?

Calicut

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How did Vasco da Gama urge his men to trade anything they could and as much as they could?

Because in India, the spices were much cheaper, and he would be able to sell them for more than ten times as much in Europe.

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How long does it take for da Gama to sail to Calicut and back?

2 years

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Who was Alfonso de Albuqueruque?

A Portuguese admiral that sought out to conquer parts of Asia rather than trade with them.

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Where was the first place Albuqeruque conquered and when?

Goa, India (1510)

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Where was the second place Albuqeruque conquered and when?

Malacca, Indonesia (1511)

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Why were the places Albuqeruque conquered so important to the Portuguese?

Because this gave them a base of operations in Asia and made them leaders in this trade. It also broke the Italian-Muslim trade monopoly.

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Why was Spain jealous of Portugal?

Because despite the fact that Spain was bigger and richer, Portugal was dominating the sea trade to Asia.

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Who was Christopher Columbus?

An Italian explorer who believed that he could sail to Asia by going west in 2 weeks.

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Why were Christopher Columbus' ideas not taken seriously?

Because he believed the earth was shaped like a pear, and much smaller than science claimed it to be.

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How did Christopher Columbus manage to get permission from Spain to go on his expedition?

Queen Isabella convinces her husband, King Ferdinand, to let Columbus go on the voyage, as they desperately wanted new territory for trade routes.

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How many supplies did Columbus get from King Ferdinand for his 1st voyage?

3 ships and 90 men

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Where did Christopher Columbus land?

Hispaniola, modern-day Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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Why was Columbus so sure that he had landed in the East Indies?

Because there were spices and goods that weren't in Europe and the skin of the natives was darker than his own.

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What did Christopher Columbus call the natives that he found when he landed in Hispaniola?

Indians, because he thought he had landed in India.

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Did Columbus ever know he had discovered a new land?

No, until his death he believed he had found India.

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What is the first thing King Ferdinand does when Columbus arrives with his ships full of goods?

He immediately sends Columbus back with more supplies to conquer the lands he had discovered.

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How many supplies did Columbus get from King Ferdinand for his 2nd voyage?

18 ships and a couple thousand soldiers.

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How long after his discovery did Christopher Columbus live?

14 years

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Why did Portugal become mad at Spain?

Because Portugal believed that Spain had landed in their territory and was conquering Portuguese land.

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Who intervened to stop the tension between Portugal and Spain?

Pope Alexander VI

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How does Pope Alexander VI try to ease the tension between Portugal and Spain?

He suggests the creation of the Line of Demarcation.

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What was the Line of Demarcation?

An imaginary line that divided the newfound territory between Portugal and Spain.

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Whose territory was east of the Line of Demarcation? Whose was west?

Portugal, Spain

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How long did it take for the Line of Demarcation to be officially instituted?

1 year

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What was signed between Portugal and Spain in agreement to the Line of Demarcation?

The Treaty of Tordesillas

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Who was Ferdinand Magellan?

A Spanish explorer that sought to circumnavigate the globe.

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What happens to Magellan in the Philippines?

He gets wounded in a fight against natives and dies.

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What did Magellan's crew do with their captain being dead?

They kept his body and made it back to Spain with a dead Magellan on board.

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What smaller country later begins to dominate the seas?

The Netherlands (The Dutch)

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How big was the Dutch fleet?

About 20,000 ships by 1600

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What company did the Netherlands create?

The Dutch East India Company

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Why did the Dutch government allow the Dutch East India Company to become a monopoly?

So that they could focus solely on trading and naval power rather than competition.

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What made the Dutch East India Company have almost as much power as a small country?

It could declare war, make treaties and allies, print its own currency, and take prisoners and execute them.

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What places did the Dutch East India Company take from Portugal, and why were they so important?

Goa, Malacca, the Cape of Good Hope, and most of Portugal's other ports were overtaken by the Dutch East India Company. This was important because now Portugal had to pay taxes to travel through these locations, and this made the Dutch extremely rich.

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What was the Mandate of Heaven?

The divine right for an emperor to rule according to the gods.

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What was the Dynastic Cycle?

The cycle of dynasties rising and falling in China.

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What was the first step of the Dynastic Cycle?

A new dynasty is born and the new emperor makes changes to the government and other systems (such as education) to make the empire run smoother.

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What was the second step of the Dynastic Cycle?

Everything works better in the empire for a little while.

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What was the third step of the Dynastic Cycle?

The Government becomes corrupted, normally by money or power.

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What was the fourth step of the Dynastic Cycle?

Famine and natural disasters destroy the commoner's faith in their government.

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What was the fifth step of the Dynastic Cycle?

Commoners become tired of all the problems in their empire so they revolt.

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What was the sixth step of the Dynastic Cycle?

Dynasty is considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven.

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What was the seventh step of the Dynastic Cycle?

The current emperor is defeated and a new one takes his place.

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What did China do to keep the power and the peace in Asia?

They set up a tribute system that made other countries show submission by paying tribute to China.

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What were the two criteria for a country to trade with China?

They had to pay tribute and only trade at certain ports.

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Who became the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty?

Hongwu

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Why was Hongwu said to have received the Mandate of Heaven?

Because had driven the Mongols out of China.

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What did Hongwu instill to try and fix China?

Reforms

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Why did Hongwu have to try and repair farmland?

Because most of it had been destroyed in wars against the Mongols.

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What crops did Hongwu encourage people to grow and why?

Rice, cotton, and sugarcane; were easy to grow, and could be consumed or sold in large amounts.

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How did Hongwu encourage to grow crops?

By putting less tax on farmlands that grew these specific crops.

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In one of his reforms, what was Hongwu trying to remove from society.

Reminders of China's Mongol past.

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What did Hongwu create in order to not have a corrupted government?

He created the civil service exam.

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What were people tested on in a civil service exam?

Their knowledge of Confucian values.

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Why was the exam biased towards more wealthy people?

Because richer people had more time and money to spend on learning Confucianism, while poorer people had to work most of the time and couldn't afford to spend time or money on other things.

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What were four of some of the Confucian morals that Hongwu used in his reforms?

Ceremony is important, We should treat our parents with reverence, We should be obedient to honorable people, Cultivated Knowledge was more important than creativity.

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Why did Hongwu kill over a thousand government members near the end of his rule?

Because he was paranoid about a takeover.

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