Lec Exam 4

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medial epicondyle of humerus

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1

medial epicondyle of humerus

forearm flexors origin

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lateral epicondyle of humerus

forearm extensor origin

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flexor carpi radialis

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flexor carpi ulnaris

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flexor digitorum superficialis

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flexor digitorum profundus

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extensor digitorum communis

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extensor carpi radialis longus

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extensor carpi ulnaris

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iliopsoas

major flexor of hip joint

<p>major flexor of hip joint</p>
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gluteus maximus

O: gluteal surface of ilium

I: gluteal tuberosity

F: extension, external rotation, abduction and adduction of the thigh

<p>O: gluteal surface of ilium</p><p>I: gluteal tuberosity</p><p>F: extension, external rotation, abduction and adduction of the thigh</p>
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ulna

pinky side

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radius

thumb side

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rectus femoris

O: the anterior inferior iliac spine and the other from the ridge of the acetabulum

I: quad tendon at patella

F: only muscle of the quadriceps to cross both the hip and knee joints; flexes the thigh at the hip joint, and extends at the knee joint

<p>O: the anterior inferior iliac spine and the other from the ridge of the acetabulum</p><p>I: quad tendon at patella</p><p>F: only muscle of the quadriceps to cross both the hip and knee joints; flexes the thigh at the hip joint, and extends at the knee joint</p>
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sartorius

O: ASIS

I: tibia

F: flexes hip and knee while laterally rotating leg

<p>O: ASIS</p><p>I: tibia</p><p>F: flexes hip and knee while laterally rotating leg</p>
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vastus lateralis

O: femur

I: QT (quad tendon)

F: stabilize knee joint

<p>O: femur</p><p>I: QT (quad tendon)</p><p>F: stabilize knee joint</p>
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vastus medialis

O: top of femur

I: QT

F: stabilize knee joint

<p>O: top of femur</p><p>I: QT</p><p>F: stabilize knee joint</p>
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vastus intermedius

under rectus femoris

F: stabilize knee joint

<p>under rectus femoris</p><p>F: stabilize knee joint</p>
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adductor longus

I: Middle third of linea aspera of femur

F: adduct the thigh at the hip joint

<p>I: Middle third of linea aspera of femur</p><p>F: adduct the thigh at the hip joint</p>
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adductor magnus

I: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur

F: dynamic stabilizer of the pelvis and femur as well as a prime mover of the femur into adduction

<p>I: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur</p><p>F: dynamic stabilizer of the pelvis and femur as well as a prime mover of the femur into adduction</p>
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gracilis

I: inserts on the medial tibia

F: hip adduction, knee flexion, and knee internal rotation

<p>I: inserts on the medial tibia</p><p>F: hip adduction, knee flexion, and knee internal rotation</p>
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gluteus medius

antagonists to adductor group

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tensor fascia latae

O: anterior superior iliac spine

I: lateral condyle of tibia

F: thigh internal rotation, weak abduction, external rotation, weak flection and extension, stabilizes hip & knee joints

<p>O: anterior superior iliac spine</p><p>I: lateral condyle of tibia</p><p>F: thigh internal rotation, weak abduction, external rotation, weak flection and extension, stabilizes hip &amp; knee joints</p>
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gluteus medius

O: gluteal surface of ilium

I: greater trochanter

F: abductor

<p>O: gluteal surface of ilium</p><p>I: greater trochanter</p><p>F: abductor</p>
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gluteus minimus

O: gluteal surface of ilium

I: greater trochanter

F: abductor

<p>O: gluteal surface of ilium</p><p>I: greater trochanter</p><p>F: abductor</p>
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biceps femoris

O: ischial tuberosity

I: tibia and fibula

F: movement at both the hip joint and knee joint

<p>O: ischial tuberosity</p><p>I: tibia and fibula</p><p>F: movement at both the hip joint and knee joint</p>
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semimembranosus

O: ischial tuberosity

I: tibia

F: flexion and internal rotation of the knee joint

<p>O: ischial tuberosity</p><p>I: tibia</p><p>F: flexion and internal rotation of the knee joint</p>
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semitendinosus

O: ischial tuberosity

I: tibia

F: extend at the hip and flex at the knee

<p>O: ischial tuberosity</p><p>I: tibia</p><p>F: extend at the hip and flex at the knee</p>
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gastrocnemius

O: femoral condyles

I: achilles tendon

F: plantar flexor

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soleus

O: head of fibula

I: posterior surface of calcaneu

F: plantar flexors

<p>O: head of fibula</p><p>I: posterior surface of calcaneu</p><p>F: plantar flexors</p>
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tibialis anterior

F: dorsiflexes the foot at the talocrural joint and inverts it at the subtalar joint

<p>F: dorsiflexes the foot at the talocrural joint and inverts it at the subtalar joint</p>
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extensor digitorum

F: extend the foot at the ankle, along with the four smallest toes

<p>F: extend the foot at the ankle, along with the four smallest toes</p>
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fibularis longus

I: medial cuneiform bone

F: produce the plantarflexion and eversion of the foot on the ankle joint

<p>I: medial cuneiform bone</p><p>F: produce the plantarflexion and eversion of the foot on the ankle joint</p>
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fibularis brevis

I: tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal bone

F: plantar flexion and eversion

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wernickes area

region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech

<p>region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech</p>
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brocas area

contains neurons involved in speech function

<p>contains neurons involved in speech function</p>
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primary motor cortex

the area that provides the most important signal for the production of skilled movements

<p>the area that provides the most important signal for the production of skilled movements</p>
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primary sensory cortex

processing afferent somatosensory input and contributes to the integration of sensory and motor signals necessary for skilled movement

<p>processing afferent somatosensory input and contributes to the integration of sensory and motor signals necessary for skilled movement</p>
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optic nerve

knowt flashcard image
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40

gray matter

brain - superficial tissue

spinal cord - deep tissue

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white matter

brain - deep tissue

spinal cord - superficial tissue

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42

CN I (olfactory)

Modality: Sensory

Function: S-smell

Exit from Skull: olfactory fossa from cribiform plate

<p>Modality: Sensory</p><p>Function: S-smell</p><p>Exit from Skull: olfactory fossa from cribiform plate</p>
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CN II (Optic)

Modality: Sensory

Function: S-vision and visual field

Exit from Skull: optic foramen

<p>Modality: Sensory</p><p>Function: S-vision and visual field</p><p>Exit from Skull: optic foramen</p>
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CN III (Oculomotor)

Modality: motor

Function: M- eye muscles and pupil

Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure

<p>Modality: motor</p><p>Function:  M- eye muscles and pupil</p><p>Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure</p>
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CN IV (trochlear)

Modality: motor

Function: eye muscle (superior oblique)

Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure

<p>Modality: motor</p><p>Function: eye muscle (superior oblique)</p><p>Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure</p>
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CN V (trigeminal)

3 branches

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V1 (ophthalmic)

Modality: sensory

Function: S- forehead, around eyes, cornea

Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure

<p>Modality:  sensory</p><p>Function: S- forehead, around eyes, cornea</p><p>Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure</p>
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V2 (Maxillary)

Modality: sensory

Function: S- teeth, skin over maxilla

Exit from Skull: foramen rotundum

<p>Modality: sensory</p><p>Function: S- teeth, skin over maxilla</p><p>Exit from Skull: foramen rotundum</p>
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V3 (mandibular)

Modality: sensory and motor

Function: S-teeth of lower jaw and tongue M- mastication

Exit from Skull: foramen ovale

<p>Modality:  sensory and motor</p><p>Function: S-teeth of lower jaw and tongue M- mastication</p><p>Exit from Skull: foramen ovale</p>
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CN VI (Abducens)

Modality: motor

Function: M-eye muscle (lateral rectus)

Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure

<p>Modality:  motor</p><p>Function: M-eye muscle (lateral rectus)</p><p>Exit from Skull: superior orbital fissure</p>
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CN VII (Facial)

Modality: sensory and motor

Function: S-taste in anterior part of tongue, external ear M- facial expression

Exit from Skull: internal auditory meatus and stylomastoid foramen

<p>Modality:  sensory and motor</p><p>Function: S-taste in anterior part of tongue, external ear M- facial expression</p><p>Exit from Skull: internal auditory meatus and stylomastoid foramen</p>
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CN VIII (Vestibulocochlear)

Modality: sensory

Function: S-hearing and balance

Exit from Skull: internal auditory meatus

<p>Modality: sensory</p><p>Function: S-hearing and balance</p><p>Exit from Skull: internal auditory meatus</p>
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CN IX (Glossopharangeal)

Modality: sensory and motor

Function: S- taste in posterior part of tongue, pharynx M- pharyngeal muscles

Exit from Skull: jugular foramen

<p>Modality:  sensory and motor</p><p>Function:  S- taste in posterior part of tongue, pharynx M- pharyngeal muscles</p><p>Exit from Skull: jugular foramen</p>
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CN X (vagus)

Modality: sensory and motor

Function: S-thoracic and abdominal viscera

M- parasympathetic to abdominal organs

Exit from Skull: jugular foramen

(only cranial nerve to exit the head and neck region)

<p>Modality: sensory and motor</p><p></p><p>Function: S-thoracic and abdominal viscera</p><p>M- parasympathetic to abdominal organs</p><p></p><p>Exit from Skull: jugular foramen</p><p>(only cranial nerve to exit the head and neck region)</p>
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CN XI (Spinal Accessory)

Modality: motor

Function: M- SCM and trapezius

Exit from Skull: jugular foramen

<p>Modality: motor</p><p>Function: M- SCM and trapezius</p><p>Exit from Skull: jugular foramen</p>
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CN XII (Hypoglossal)

Modality: motor

Function: M- tongue and throat muscles

Exit from Skull: hypoglossal canal

<p>Modality: motor</p><p>Function: M- tongue and throat muscles</p><p>Exit from Skull: hypoglossal canal</p>
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CN III Oculomotor

Innervates 4 of 6 eye muscles

Superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique muscle

Controls pupil dilation (sympathetic) and constriction (parasympathetic)

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CN IV Trochlear

innervates superior oblique muscle

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CN VI Abducens

innervates lateral rectus (abducts eye)

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falx cerebri

a large, crescent-shaped fold of dura mater that descends vertically into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain

<p>a large, crescent-shaped fold of dura mater that descends vertically into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain</p>
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tentorium cerebelli

an invagination of the meningeal layer of the dura mater that separates the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum and brainstem

<p>an invagination of the meningeal layer of the dura mater that separates the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum and brainstem</p>
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lateral ventricle

Two of them

Go from frontal to occipital lobe

Separated by septum pellucidum

At the bottom there are interventricular foramen that led to third ventricle

<p>Two of them</p><p>Go from frontal to occipital lobe</p><p>Separated by septum pellucidum</p><p>At the bottom there are interventricular foramen that led to third ventricle</p>
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third ventricle

found at level of thalamus and hypothalamus

<p>found at level of thalamus and hypothalamus</p>
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cerebral aqueduct

knowt flashcard image
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fourth ventricle

In between cerebellum and backside of brainstem

Has opening for CSF (medial and lateral apertures) to flow around the arachnoid layer

<p>In between cerebellum and backside of brainstem</p><p>Has opening for CSF (medial and lateral apertures) to flow around the arachnoid layer</p>
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choroid plexus

Surrounded by ependymal cells

Blood vessels inside each ventricle

Forms CSF from blood

Chemical stability

Keeps brain afloat

Impaired drainage or overproduction of CSF

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parietal lobe

Major centers for sensory input other than hearing, balance, smell, vision

Touch, temperature, pain, two-point discrimination

<p>Major centers for sensory input other than hearing, balance, smell, vision</p><p>Touch, temperature, pain, two-point discrimination</p>
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occipital lobe

Coordinates with parietal and temporal lobes

Vision center

<p>Coordinates with parietal and temporal lobes</p><p>Vision center</p>
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temporal lobe

Memory storage and recall

<p>Memory storage and recall</p>
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insula

Behind temporal lobe

4-5 gyri wide

Deepest lobe of cerebrum

Plays a role in addiction and compulsive behavior

<p>Behind temporal lobe</p><p>4-5 gyri wide</p><p>Deepest lobe of cerebrum</p><p>Plays a role in addiction and compulsive behavior</p>
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premotor area

very small region; controls learned motor skills (especially those of patterned nature), coordinates multiple muscle groups to work at the same time

<p>very small region; controls learned motor skills (especially those of patterned nature), coordinates multiple muscle groups to work at the same time</p>
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prefrontal cortex

decision making, logic, conscience (right and wrong)

<p>decision making, logic, conscience (right and wrong)</p>
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primary motor cortex

precentral gyrus on both sides

Bundle of axons that go through the brain and brainstem that become white matter motor pathways in spinal cord

Areas that have fine tune control over have large surface area on cortex

Face, hands, arm

<p>precentral gyrus on both sides</p><p>Bundle of axons that go through the brain and brainstem that become white matter motor pathways in spinal cord</p><p>Areas that have fine tune control over have large surface area on cortex</p><p>Face, hands, arm</p>
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74

primary sensory cortex

postcentral gyrus on both sides

Areas that have fine tune sensory ability have large surface area on cortex

Hands, face, teeth

<p>postcentral gyrus on both sides</p><p>Areas that have fine tune sensory ability have large surface area on cortex</p><p>Hands, face, teeth</p>
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sensory association area

can perceive and differentiate emotional aspects of touch and sensations

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primary occipital cortex

visual processing, through optic nerve

Visual association area right above it

<p>visual processing, through optic nerve</p><p>Visual association area right above it</p>
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primary olfactory cortex

inside temporal lobe near frontal lobe

Sense of smell is only sense that does not have mandatory stop-over in thalamus

Continuations of olfactory fibers into hypothalamus

<p>inside temporal lobe near frontal lobe</p><p>Sense of smell is only sense that does not have mandatory stop-over in thalamus</p><p>Continuations of olfactory fibers into hypothalamus</p>
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auditory association area

top part of temporal lobe

<p>top part of temporal lobe</p>
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primary gustatory cortex

inferior part of parietal lobe, sense goes through thalamus into here for processing

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primary vestibular cortex

buried inside on the posterior border of the insula, parietal, and temporal lobe, conscious perception of balance

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left brain

Verbal memory

Speech (motor) area

Right hand control

Feeling shapes w right hand

Superior language and mathematic comprehension (Wernicke's area)

Right visual field

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right brain

Memory for shapes (limited language comprehension)

Left hand motor control

Feeling shapes w left hand

Musical ability

Recognition of faces and spatial relationships

Left visual field

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83

association fibers

Fibers that run back and forth in the same hemisphere

Short and long

<p>Fibers that run back and forth in the same hemisphere</p><p>Short and long</p>
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commissural fibers

Travel between hemispheres

Make up corpus callosum

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projection fibers

travel down from brain to spinal cord

- Most carry motor signals

Travel up from spinal cord

- Most carry sensory signals

Many cross or decussate

- In medulla where they cross before they reach the spinal cord

- 90% of outgoing motor signals cross (left side controls right side motor skills)

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86

basal nuclei

Deep gray matter

Send and receive input regarding movements between brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum

Helps inhibit unwanted muscle contractions of skeletal muscles

Disorders of basal nuclei can suffer from resting tremors

<p>Deep gray matter</p><p>Send and receive input regarding movements between brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum</p><p>Helps inhibit unwanted muscle contractions of skeletal muscles</p><p>Disorders of basal nuclei can suffer from resting tremors</p>
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CNS

Central

Brain and spinal cord

Integration and control centers

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PNS

peripheral

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ANS

Autonomic

Somatic and autonomic

Parasympathetic and sympathetic (divides autonomic more)

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neuroglial cells

Support and protect neurons

Can undergo mitosis

Cells that cause brain cancer through unregulated mitosis

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ogliodendrocyte

Myelinates and insulates CNS axons

Allows faster action potential propagation along axons in the CNS

<p>Myelinates and insulates CNS axons</p><p>Allows faster action potential propagation along axons in the CNS</p>
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astrocyte

Most abundant

Form blood-brain barrier

Regulate interstitial fluid composition

Structural support and organization to CNS

Assists w neural development

Replicates to occupy space and dying neurons

<p>Most abundant</p><p>Form blood-brain barrier</p><p>Regulate interstitial fluid composition</p><p>Structural support and organization to CNS</p><p>Assists w neural development</p><p>Replicates to occupy space and dying neurons</p>
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ependymal cell

Lines ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cord

Assists in production and circulation of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)

<p>Lines ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cord</p><p>Assists in production and circulation of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)</p>
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microglial cells

Phagocytic cells that move through the CNS

Protects CNS by engulfing infections agents and other potential harmful substances

<p>Phagocytic cells that move through the CNS</p><p>Protects CNS by engulfing infections agents and other potential harmful substances</p>
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Schwann cell

Found in PNS

Myelinates and insulates PNS axons

Allows for faster action potential propagation along an axon in the PNS

<p>Found in PNS</p><p>Myelinates and insulates PNS axons</p><p>Allows for faster action potential propagation along an axon in the PNS</p>
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96

satellite cells

Dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves

Found in PNS

Electrically insulates PNS cell bodies

Regulates nutrient and waste exchange for cell bodies in ganglia

<p>Dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves</p><p>Found in PNS</p><p>Electrically insulates PNS cell bodies</p><p>Regulates nutrient and waste exchange for cell bodies in ganglia</p>
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saltatory conduction

Allows action potentials to travel very quickly

Myelin is most important factor in increasing conduction velocity

Allows action potentials to jump over myelinated cells into each node of Ranvier down the axon

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myelinated axon

Axons have lipid sheath around them

Created by oligodendrocyte or Schwann cells

Nodes of Ranvier, saltatory conduction

Speed of generation is much greater 5-100m/sec

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unmyelinated axon

No myelin sheaths

Conduction is slower at 0.5-2m/sec

Tend to be shorter axons than myelinated ones

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100

axon hillock

Electrical signal is generated down axon

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