Music History Test 1

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Doctrine of Ethos

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40 Terms

1

Doctrine of Ethos

music has power over Emotion and Behavior. the music you listen to will be who you become

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2

tetrachords

collection of 4 pitches, upper and lower voices encompass a P4, inner pitches were variable

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3

genera

Diatonic Genus- descending P4, interval pattern from top to bottom: WWHWWWH Chromatic- interval pattern m3, semitone, semitone Enharmonic- interval pattern M3, quartertone, quartertone

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4

Charlemagne

used Catholic church to stabilize and unify area and liturgy. asked Pope Gregory to send singers and chants. Dispute between Romans and Char.'s people over who was right. Char. rewrote chants to ensure everyone sings the same thing

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5

Pope Gregory I

"created" all roman chants by holy spirit

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6

Capella

outlined program for education based on the 7 liberal arts

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7

7 liberal arts

Trivium- grammar, rhetoric, logic Quadrivium- mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy

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8

Boethius

known for De Institution musica; textbook used to teach music as it appeared in the quadrivium; taught music w/o instruments

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9

classification of music

Musica mudana; music produced by stars and planets and other heavenly bodies Musica humana; human music; harmony, balance, relationships of man w/ society and within himself Musica instrumentalis: instrumental music

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10

Church modes

8 modes; Dorian (D), hypodorian, Phrygian (E), hypophrygian, Lydian (F), hypolydian, mixolydian (G), hypomixolydian (hypo- main note stays in the middle)

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11

Guido of Arezzo

Created solmization syllabus to help singers remember where pitches occur; Guidonian Hand- taught boys to sightsing by pointing at different joints/"pitches"

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12

hexachords

basic unit of medieval theory made up of 6 pitches

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13

Types of hexachords

Hard- starts on G; has B natural that looks like square Soft- starts on F; has Bb Natural- starts on C (no B or Bb)

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14

Mutation

when melody exceeds interval of a 6th, you have to move to another hexachord

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15

liturgical year

4 Sundays of advent, 12 days of Christmas/Epiphany, ordinary time till Lent, 40 days of Easter, pentecost until you countdown for Advent again

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16

Office

called canonical hours because they meet throughout the day; starts at sundown.

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17

Mass

commemoration of the Lord sacrificing His life. Consists of 2 parts: liturgy of the word (sermon) and liturgy of eucharists (communion)

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18

Ordinary text

spoken and sung at every mass and do NOT change

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19

Proper text

change from service to service

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20

Ordinary of the Mass

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

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21

3 styles of text setting

Syllabic- one note per syllable Melismatic- many notes of melody on one syllable of text Neumatic- halfway between syllablic and melismatic

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22

Psalms

poems from the book of Psalms that are song

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23

canticles

poems from the bible that are not in the book of Psalms (not sung)

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24

Methods of psalm performance

Direct, responsorial, antiphonal

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25

Recitation Formula

simplest kind of chant, used for responsorial prayers and readings from scripture; usually recited on one note

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26

Psalm Tones

Intonation: formula for getting into the text Reciting tone: tenor Mediant: formula for finishing first half of verse Reciting tone: tenor Termination: formula for ending the verse

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27

Antiphon

proper texts sung before and after Psalms (in one of 8 church modes)

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28

Notker Balbulus

credited to inventing the sequence

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29

Sequence

a new kind of chant that was created through troping

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30

Trope

to add music, text, or both to an existing chant

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31

Liturgical Drama

different soloists assigned "characters" from bible to sing

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32

Hildegard of Bingen

most famous female composer of medieval era; had visions of God throughout childhood (painted them); known around Europe for education, learning, and spiritual gifts; wrote Ordo Virtutum

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33

Goliards

kicked out of church for balmiest music but still highly educated; Carmina Burana

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34

Toubadours

"poetry finders"; from modern day southern France; wrote Fin'amors (courtly love songs)

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35

Trouveres

Modern day northern France; finders of music

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36

Trobairitz

female troubadour that wrote Fin'amors in their perspective

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37

Minnesinger

German counterpart to French Troubadours and Trouveres; both came from the same social class and wrote similar poems; pieces called minnelieder

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38

Bar Form

AAB: stollen, stollen, abgesang; B section always longer than A

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39

Cantigas de Santa Maria

collection of over 400 songs in praise of the Virgin Mary; generically cantigas; strophic with refrain

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40

Estampie

A medieval dance that is one of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music; Start first phrase, goes to open ending (modern day first ending), back to beginning, repeat however much you want, then to closed ending (M.D. 2nd ending)

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