CHEM Chapter 3 Vocab

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law of conservation of mass

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Chemistry

14 Terms

1

law of conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions of physical changes

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2

law of definite proportions

a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of size or sample of source

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3

law of multiple proportions

if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd combine with a certain mass of the first is a ratio of small whole numbers

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4

atom

the smallest chemical particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element

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5

nuclear forces

short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces hold nuclear particles together

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6

atomic number

the number of protons in each atom of an element

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7

isotope

atoms of the same element that have different masses

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8

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope

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9

nuclide

general term for a specific isotope of an element

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10

unified atomic mass unit (1 u)

exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

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11

average atomic mass

weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element

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12

mole (mol)

amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

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13

Avogadro's number

6.022 141 79 x10^23 - the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance

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14

molar mass

the mass of one mole of a pure substance

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