Introduction to Neuroscience

studied byStudied by 6 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint
  • Sensory Input

  • Integration

  • Motor Output

1 / 81

Tags and Description

82 Terms

1
  • Sensory Input

  • Integration

  • Motor Output

functions of the nervous system.

New cards
2

Sensory Input

- gathering information

- to monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body

New cards
3

Integration

to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed.

New cards
4

Motor Output

- a response to integrated stimuli

- the response activates muscles or glands

New cards
5

Central Nervous System

composed of the brain and spinal cord.

New cards
6

Peripheral Nervous System

composed of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.

New cards
7

Sensory Division

- afferent; ascending

- nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system

New cards
8

Ruffini Endings

for perception of touch and pressure, signaling continuous state of skin deformation and heat perception.

New cards
9

Krause's End-Bulb

for touch, pressure, and cold perception.

New cards
10

Pacinian Corpuscle

- deeper part of the skin

- responsible for perception of deep touch and vibration

New cards
11

Free Nerve Endings

- for pain, temperature, touch, pressure, tickle, and itch sensations

- found throughout the body

New cards
12

Hair Follicle Endings

- mechanical movement and touch

- found at the base of each hair follicle

New cards
13

Merkel's Disk

for low intensity touch, velocity of touch, ability to perceive continuous contact of object with skin, 2 point discrimination and localization of touch.

New cards
14

Meissner's Corpuscle

  • for discriminative touch and texture recognition

  • increase concentration in the fingertips and toes

New cards
15

Motor Division

- efferent; descending

- nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system

New cards
16
  • Somatic Nervous System (Voluntary)

  • Autonomic Nervous System (Involuntary)

two subdivisions of motor division.

New cards
17

Neurons

cells specialized to transmit messages.

New cards
18
  • Soma (Cell Body)

  • Dendrites

  • Axon

  • Axonal Terminal

components of the neurons.

New cards
19

Cell Body

nucleus and metabolic center of the cell.

New cards
20

Axons

transfers information from the cell body to the outside.

New cards
21

Dendrites

receives information towards the cell body.

New cards
22

Astrocytes

  • brace neurons together

  • act as a chemical mediator among the ions that penetrates your brain

  • maintain chemical activity in the brain

  • forms the blood-brain barrier

New cards
23

Oligodendrocytes

produces myelin sheath in the CNS.

New cards
24

Schwann Cells

produces myelin sheath in the PNS.

New cards
25

Ependymal Cells

circulate the flow of CSF in the brain.

New cards
26

Microglia

acts as macrophages of the cell.

New cards
27

Spinal Cord

- situated within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column and is surrounded by three meninges

- cylindrical and begins superiorly at the foramen magnum in the skull and terminates at the conus medullaris

- it has 31 pairs of spinal nerves by the anterior or motor roots and the posterior or sensory roots

New cards
28

Filum Terminale

a prolongation of the pia mater.

New cards
29

Gray Matter

is seen on cross section as an H-shaped pillar with anterior and posterior gray columns, or horns, united by a thin gray commissure.

New cards
30

White Matter

may be divided into anterior, lateral, and posterior white columns.

New cards
31

Posterior Root

consists of bundles of afferent fibers that carry nervous impulses to the CNS

New cards
32

Posterior Root Ganglion

swelling on the posterior root where

New cards
33

Anterior Root

consists of bundles of nerve fibers carrying nerve impulses away from the CNS (efferent fibers).

New cards
34

Brain

it lies in the cranial cavity and is continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum.

New cards
35
  • Dura Mater

  • Arachnoid Mater

  • Pia Mater

three meninges of the brain.

New cards
36
  • Medulla Oblongata

  • Pons

  • Cerebellum

parts of the hindbrain.

New cards
37

Medulla Oblongata

- is conical in shape and connects in shape and connects the pons superiorly to the spinal cord inferiorly

- for auto-rhythmicity

- serves as pathway for sensory and motor information

- has connection with the other parts of the brain stem

New cards
38

Pons

is situated on the anterior surface of the cerebellum, inferior to the midbrain and superior to the medulla oblongata.

New cards
39

Cerebellum

- lies within the posterior cranial fossa of the skull

- for coordination, balance, and equilibrium

New cards
40

Vermis

median portion that connects the hemispheres of the cerebellum.

New cards
41

Cerebellar Peduncles

- composed of large bundles of nerve fibers connecting the cerebellum to the remainder of the nervous system

- has superior (midbrain) , middle (pons), and inferior parts (medulla oblongata

New cards
42

Cerebellar Cortex

- surface layer of each cerebellar hemisphere

- is composed of gray matter

- is thrown into folds, or folia, separated by closely set transverse fissures

New cards
43

Dentate Nucleus

the largest mass of gray matter that is found in the interior of the cerebellum, embedded in the white matter.

New cards
44

Fourth Ventricle

cavity filled with CSF and is connected superiorly to the third ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct; inferiorly, it is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.

New cards
45

Midbrain

- is the narrow part of the brain that connects the forebrain to the hindbrain

- contains many nuclei and bundles of ascending and descending nerve fibers

New cards
46

Cerebral Aqueduct

which connects the third and fourth ventricles.

New cards
47

Forebrain

comprises the diencephalon and the cerebrum.

New cards
48

Diencephalon

- is almost completely hidden from the surface of the brain

- consists of a dorsal thalamus and a ventral hypothalamus

New cards
49

Thalamus

is a large, egg-shaped mass of gray matter that lies on either side of the third ventricle.

New cards
50

Interventricular Foramen

- formed by the anterior end of the thalamus

- the opening between the third and lateral ventricles

New cards
51

Hypothalamus

- forms the lower part of the lateral wall and floor of the third ventricle

- for thermoregulation

- for secretion of hormones

- center for hunger and satiety

- responsible for regulating emotions

New cards
52

Cerebrum

largest part of the brain, consists of two cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a mass of white matter called the corpus callosum.

New cards
53

Fissures

- deep grooves

- separate major regions of the brain

New cards
54

Transverse Fissure

separates cerebrum and cerebellum.

New cards
55

Longitudinal Fissure

separates cerebral hemispheres.

New cards
56

Sulci

grooves on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres.

New cards
57

Gyri

twisted ridges between sulci.

New cards
58

Commissures

- composed of commissural fibers

- allows communication between cerebral hemispheres

New cards
59

Corpus Callosum

the largest commissure.

New cards
60

Association Fibers

connect different parts of the same hemisphere.

New cards
61

Projection Fibers

connect higher and lower structures of the brain.

New cards
62

White Matter

lies deep to the gray matter of the cortex.

New cards
63

Cerebral/Basal Nuclei

- discrete innermost clusters of gray matter within the masses of white matter

- are oval, spherical, or sometimes irregularly shaped clusters of neuron cell bodies

New cards
64

Corona Radiata

- fan-shaped collection of nerve fibers

- passes in the white matter to and from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem

- converges on the basal nuclei and passes between them as the internal capsule

New cards
65

Caudate Nucleus

tailed nucleus situated in the medial side of the internal capsule.

New cards
66

Lentiform Nucleus

lens-shaped nucleus on the lateral side of the internal capsule.

New cards
67

Peripheral Nervous System

consists of spinal nerves, cranial nerves, and their associated ganglia.

New cards
68

Efferent Fibers

are involved in motor functions, such as the contraction of muscles or secretion of glands.

New cards
69

Afferent Fibers

usually convey sensory stimuli from the skin, mucous membranes, and deeper structures.

New cards
70

31 pairs

how many pairs of spinal nerves?

New cards
71

12 pairs

how many pairs of cranial nerves?

New cards
72

8 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

1 coccygeal

spinal nerves associated with regions of the spinal cord

New cards
73

Cauda Equina

lower nerve roots that form a vertical leash of nerves around the filum terminale.

New cards
74

Posterior Ramus

passes posteriorly around the vertebral column to supply the muscles and skin of the back.

New cards
75

Anterior Ramus

- continues anteriorly to supply the muscles and skin over the anterolateral body wall and all the muscles and skin of the limbs

- they join one another at the root of the limbs to form complicated nerve plexuses

New cards
76
  • Sensory Ganglia of Spinal Nerves

  • Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Ganglia

division of ganglia

New cards
77

Sensory Ganglia

- are fusiform swelling on the posterior root of each spinal nerve just proximal to the root’s junction with a corresponding anterior root

- posterior root ganglia

New cards
78

Autonomic Ganglia

- are often irregular in shape and are situated along the course of efferent nerve fibers of the ANS

- are found in the paravertebral sympathetic chains around the roots of the great visceral arteries in the abdomen and close to, or embedded within, the wall of various viscera

New cards
79

Falx Cerebri

separates left and right cerebral hemisphere.

New cards
80

Tentorium Cerebelli

separates cerebrum and cerebellum.

New cards
81

Diaphragma Sellae

seperates pituitary gland.

New cards
82

Falx Cerebelli

separates the left and right cerebellar hemisphere.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 46 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4066 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(11)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard114 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 52 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 449 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)