Unit 1 Vocabulary 22-23

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52 Terms
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Reference Map

A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.

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Thematic Map

A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.

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Absolute Distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

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Absolute Direction

Based on the cardinal points of north, south, east, and west

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Relative Distance

Distance measured in terms such as cost or time which are more meaningful for the space relationship in question

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Relative Direction

Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down based on people's perception of places

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Clustering

When objects in an area are close together.

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Dispersal

When objects in an area are relatively far apart.

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Elevation

The height of land above sea level.

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Map Projection

the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.

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Absolute Location

The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.

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Relative Location

The position of a place in relation to another place.

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Geographic Information System (GIS)

A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.

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Satellite Navigation System

a device used to plot the user's position on a map, using GPS technology to obtain the location.

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Remote Sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.

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Field Observations

A method of studying what people are doing and observing how their actions and reactions vary.

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Media Reports

Articles published by newspapers and magazines and television news programs.

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Travel Narratives

records of the places, people, and occurrences of a particular region that a traveler visits.

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Landscape Analysis

Using field observation, spatial data, and aerial photography to gather data to define and describe landscapes.

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Photographic Interpretation

The identification, description and measurement of objects in images, especially in aerial photographs, for geologic, cartographic or military purposes.

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Census Data

Systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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Satellite Imagery

Images of the earth taken from orbiting satellites. Images can be taken in a variety of forms so as to detect specific information about the earth, vegetation and other types of land cover.

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Space

The physical gap or interval between two objects

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Place

A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.

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Flows

the movement of objects, people and ideas between places.

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Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

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Time-space compression/convergence

The increasing sense of connectedness between a space due to technology

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Pattern

the geometric arrangement of objects in space

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Human Environment Interaction

The geographic theme that explores how people use, adapt to, and modify the environment

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Sustainability

meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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Natural Resources

Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.

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Land Use

Various ways humans use the land such as agricultural, industrial, residential, or recreational

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Environmental Determinism

the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development

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Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

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Scales of Analysis

the study of a phenomena globally, regionally, or locally

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Global Scale

the level of geography that encompasses the entire world as a single unified area

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Regional Scale

Interactions occurring within a region, in a regional setting.

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National Scale

Interactions occurring within a country.

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Local Scale

the level of geography that describes the space where an individual lives or works; a city, town, or rural area

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Regional Analysis

The study of the cultural, economic, political, physical, or other factors that contribute to the distinctiveness of geographical areas.

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Formal Region

An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.

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Functional (Nodal) Region

An area organized around a node or focal point

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Perceptual (Vernacular) Region

A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.

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Geographic Data

information that identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on earth (natural and constructed).

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Mercator Projection

a projection of a map of the world onto a cylinder in such a way that all the parallels of latitude have the same length as the equator, used especially for marine charts and certain climatological maps.

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Robinson Projection

A projection that maintains overall shapes and relative positions without extreme distortion. Most classrooms use this projection.

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Isoline Map

Map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels

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Dot Map

Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.

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Cartogram Map

A map in which the shape or size is distorted in order to demonstrate a variable such as travel, population, or economic production.

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Travel Documents

All the necessary documents you would need to take with you on a trip i.e passport or ID card, visa, etc.

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Personal Interview

A face-to-face conversation in which a researcher surveys an individual to obtain research data

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Policy Document

Documents created by the government or other organizations

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