Lecture 8 (Viral Diseases of Dogs I)

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65 million

*more households have dogs than children

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65 million

*more households have dogs than children

what is the dog population of the USA?

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c) Canine parvovirus

on Dr. Faulkner's +/++/+++ scale of clinical importance & prevalence, only one canine virus was marked as +++ (most important), what was it?

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine influenza
c) Canine parvovirus
d) Rabies

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c) Herpesvirus

like in cows, Pseudorabies (Mad Itch or Aujezsky's Disease) can occur in dogs and is a:

a) Poxvirus
b) Retrovirus
c) Herpesvirus
d) Influenzavirus

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a) Canine herpesvirus 1

what is the cause of hemorrhagic disease in puppies?

a) Canine herpesvirus 1
b) Canine herpesvirus 2
c) Porcine herpesvirus 1
d) Porcine herpesvirus 2

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true

t/f: Herpesviruses is a latent infection in the presence of serum antibodies

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diagnosis is confirmed by virus isolation and PCR

how would you confirm a diagnosis of Herpesvirus?

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by direct contact and droplet/aerosol (infectious body fluids)

how is Herpesvirus transmitted?

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c) Canine herpesvirus

-present worldwide in domestic and wild dogs
-seropositive rates of >30% are common in field dogs
-kennels can have rates of infection approaching 100%
-as many as 80-100% of dogs with a history of high exposure to other dogs (show/kennel dogs) will be found to have life-long, latent states of infection

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine parovirus
c) Canine herpesvirus
d) Rabies

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false - pups can be born without the disease because of maternal immunity

t/f: kennels can have rates of Canine Herpesvirus infection approaching 100%, and pups are always born with the disease

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false

t/f: herpesviruses is stable in the environment

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a) between 1-3 weeks

puppies that are _______________ of age are at the highest risk of disease with Canine Herpesvirus

a) between 1-3 weeks
b) between 2-4 weeks
c) > 4 weeks
d) 6+ months

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d) 6+ months

by what age in puppies is disease from Canine Herpesvirus rare?

a) between 1-3 weeks
b) between 2-4 weeks
c) > 4 weeks
d) 6+ months

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welping

the mortality rate of Herpesvirus is high among puppies exposed during __________ and the first week of life

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true

t/f: the disease progression for Canine Herpesvirus is rapid and most puppies will die within 24-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs

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d) the mortality rate is high among puppies exposed in the first week of life

which of the following is true in regards to the transmission of Canine Herpesvirus:

a) it is resistant in the environment and requires stronger disinfectants

b) transmission is through indirect contact with fomites

c) puppies over 6 months old are at the highest risk of disease

d) the mortality rate is high among puppies exposed in the first week of life

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systemic (generalized) disease

is Canine Herpesvirus a localized or systemic disease?

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-depression

-restlessness

-hypothermia

-unwillingness to nurse

-painful crying

-abdominal pain

-anorexia

-difficulty breathing

-nasal discharge

-yellow/green soft feces

-hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)

-rash

-hemorrhage (nosebleeds and bruises)

-CNS signs (blindness/staggering)

what are some clinical signs of Canine Herpes in puppies (aka fading puppy syndrome)

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c) Canine herpesvirus

a systemic disease in puppies that presents with unwillingness to nurse, painful crying, hemorrhage (bruises & nose bleeds), and hypothermia in puppies // fortunately not commonly seen

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine parovirus
c) Canine herpesvirus
d) Rabies

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false

t/f: Canine Herpesvirus is a commonly seen disease

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c) Canine herpesvirus

Puppy Necropsy findings:

-disseminated focal necrosis and hemorrhage of multiple organs (lungs/kidneys/adrenal glands/liver/GI)

-splenomegaly (enlarged spleen)

-diffuse lymph node enlargement

-CNS lesions

a) Canine distemper

b) Canine parovirus

c) Canine herpesvirus

d) Rabies

<p><strong><span style="text-decoration:underline">Puppy Necropsy findings:</span></strong> </p><p>-disseminated focal necrosis and hemorrhage of multiple organs (lungs/kidneys/adrenal glands/liver/GI)</p><p>-splenomegaly (enlarged spleen)</p><p>-diffuse lymph node enlargement </p><p>-CNS lesions</p><p></p><p>a) Canine distemper</p><p>b) Canine parovirus</p><p>c) Canine herpesvirus</p><p>d) Rabies</p>
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c) Canine herpesvirus

-can cause mild runny nose/cough
-reproductive infection may cause vesicles/pustules of the vagina or prepuce
-vaginitis, decreased fertility, still births, abortions
-most adult infections are asymptomatic
-infected for life (may be capable of shedding virus whenever stressed)

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine parovirus
c) Canine herpesvirus
d) Rabies

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c) both

asymptomatic adults with Canine Herpes virus are infected for life and can shed the virus through secretions of their:

a) respiratory tract
b) reproductive tract
c) both
d) neither; the virus isn't shed

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false - cannot be isolated beyond 2-3 weeks past primary infection

t/f: the Canine Herpesvirus can be isolated at any point as the animal is infected for life

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2-3 weeks

Canine Herpesvirus usually cannot be isolated past __-__ weeks past primary infection

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-vaginal or prepuce swabs
-respiratory secretions
-organs of dead fetuses

where can we collect samples from a dog to diagnose Canine Herpesvirus via viral culture?

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intranuclear inclusions - this is where the virus grows

what are these on a histopathology that you took from a dog diagnosed with Canine Herpesvirus

<p>what are these on a histopathology that you took from a dog diagnosed with Canine Herpesvirus</p>
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-heat lamp or pad
-tube feeding

what supportive therapy can we offer to puppies with Canine Herpesvirus?

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true

t/f: intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cells are signs expected in the histopathology of Canine Herpesvirus

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c) Canine herpesvirus

-there is no vaccine for this virus in the US
-prognosis is poor for puppies infected at birth or within the first 3 weeks of life
-we can provide supportive care, but the prognosis is that survival is rare and often accompanied by permanent organ damage
-your best bet is removal of puppies by C-section and isolating them during rearing

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine parovirus
c) Canine herpesvirus
d) Rabies

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permanent damage to multiple organ systems

survival of puppies with Canine Herpesvirus is rare and is often accompanied with...

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false - there is a killed vaccine available in Europe

t/f: there is a vaccine that has been developed for Canine Herpesvirus in the United States

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true

t/f: like in cows, Pseduorabies in dogs ties back to feral pigs...in this case it is when hunting dogs consume infected meat

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Herpesvirus

what type of virus is Pseudorabies in dogs?

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feral pigs

Pseudorabies is associated with dogs hunting _______ _______ or feeding the infected meat to dogs

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Southeastern U.S.A

where is Pseudorabies common among feral pigs in the U.S.?

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-frenzy associated with intense pruritus
-howling
-signs simulate Rabies infection (but no tendency to attack humans or other animals)
-paralysis of the jaws and pharynx accompanied by drooling of saliva

list the clinical signs of Pseudorabies in dogs

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c) there is no treatment, the dog doesn't recover, and it will even mutilate itself

*euthanasia is warranted

which of the following is true in regards to Pseduorabies in dogs:

a) it is a Poxvirus
b) it isn't seen in the USA
c) there is no treatment, the dog doesn't recover, and it will even mutilate itself
d) euthanasia is unwarranted most of the time

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a) Adenoviruses are large DNA viruses with 2 serotypes in dogs; Type 1 causing hepatitis and Type 2 causing tracheobronchitis

which of the following is correct?

a) Adenoviruses are large DNA viruses with 2 serotypes in dogs; Type 1 causing hepatitis and Type 2 causing tracheobronchitis

b) Adenoviruses are large DNA viruses with 2 serotypes in dogs; Type 1 causing tracheobronchitis and Type 2 causing hepatitis

c) Adenoviruses are large RNA viruses with 2 serotypes in dogs; Type 1 causing herpes and Type 2 causing tracheobronchitis

d) Adenoviruses are large RNA viruses with 2 serotypes in dogs; Type 1 causing herpes and Type 2 causing tracheobronchitis

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true

t/f: Adenoviruses are resistant in the environment

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diagnosis is confirmed by virus isolation and PCR

how can we confirm diagnosis of adenoviruses?

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by direct contact and droplet/aerosol

how are adenoviruses transmitted?

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false - generally more important in poultry

t/f: Adenoviruses is generally more important in mammals than in poultry

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c) CAV 2, Parainfluenza, and Distemper

*Bordetella is a bacteria but also can cause Kennel Cough

Kennel Cough is now known as the Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) and that includes which viruses?

a) Bordetella bronchiseptica, Parainfluza, Distemper

b) Bordetella bronchiseptica, CAV1, and Distemper

c) CAV 2, Parainfluenza, and Distemper

d) CAV 2, Influenza, and Distemper

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c) Kennel Cough / CIRDC

______________________ is the most prevalent problem of upper respiratory airways in dogs; this is a highly contagious disease

a) Bordetella bronchiseptica virus
b) Canine Influenza
c) Kennel Cough / CIRDC

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Kennel Cough

what is Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis also known as?

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-dry, hacking cough

-loss of appetite and lethargy in more severe cases

-productive cough

with secondary bacterial infection:

-possibly vomiting and diarrhea

-fever

what are the clinical signs of CAV2 Infections?

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a) Canine adenovirus 2

-characteristic dry, hacking cough suddenly developing 5-10 days after exposure to other dogs
-fever if there is a secondary bacterial infection

a) Canine adenovirus 2
b) Canine distemper
c) Canine Influenza (H3N8)

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Infectious Tracheobronchitis

_______ ______ should be suspected whenever a characteristic cough suddenly develops 5-10 days after exposure to other affected dogs

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large intranuclear inclusion bodies

you can make a definitive diagnosis of CAV2 via viral isolation from bronchial epithelium...what will you see?

<p>you can make a definitive diagnosis of CAV2 via viral isolation from bronchial epithelium...what will you see?</p>
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b) if uncomplicated, you simply let the virus run its course but isolate the dog from others

*cough suppressants should only be used to make the dog more comfortable if it has a persistent, non-productive cough

*antibiotics are not needed except in severe, chronic cases with secondary bacterial infections

what is the treatment for a CAV2 infected dog that still has an appetitie?

a) this virus is self-limiting; the dog can go back to life as normal
b) if uncomplicated, you simply let the virus run its course but isolate the dog from others
c) cough suppressants
d) antibiotics

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yes, often in a combo vaccine (Vanguard Plus 5)

is there vaccination for CAV2?

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a) CAV1 - Infectious Canine Hepatitis

-VERY RARE disease in U.S.A domestic dogs

-sudden death form: die within 3-4 hours and no warning // mistaken for poisoning

-severe form: bleeding gums, bloody diarrhea, shock, coma, dead within 5 days

-moderate form: recover within 4-7 days but may have blue eye

a) CAV1

b) CAV2

c) CSDV1

d) CSDV2

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b) Infectious Canine Hepatitis

can occur in wild foxes and cause encephalitis, but very rare in dogs in the U.S. due to common vaccination program

a) Canine Distemper
b) Infectious Canine Hepatitis
c) Canine Herpes

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blue eye

dogs that recover from a mediate form of Infectious Canine Hepatitis may develop...

<p>dogs that recover from a mediate form of <strong>Infectious Canine Hepatitis</strong> may develop...</p>
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poisoning

when dogs have a sudden death form of Infectious Canine Hepatitis, their death is often mistaken for __________

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encephalitis

Infectious Canine Hepatitis in wild foxes causes __________

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a) sudden death form

which form of Infectious Canine Hepatitis is this?

-fever accompanied by depression and lethargy (3-4 hours)

-no warning signs

-death is often mistaken for poisoning

a) sudden death form

b) severe form

c) moderate form

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b) severe form

which form of Infectious Canine Hepatitis is this?

-bleeding gums

-bloody diarrhea may be accompanied by vomiting

-animal may go into shock or fall into a coma

-death occurs 3-5 days after onset of clinical signs

a) sudden death form

b) severe form

c) moderate form

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c) moderate form

which form of Infectious Canine Hepatitis is this?

-depression // lethargy // abdominal pain // distention

-pale mucous membranes // anorexia

-recovery occurs within 4-7 days of onset of illness

-dogs that recover may have corneal opacity (blue eye)

a) sudden death form

b) severe form

c) moderate form

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true

t/f: while dogs that recover from infectious canine hepatitis will have a lifelong immunity, they also continue to shed the virus in urine for up to 9 months

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c) Canine Warts (Papillomavirus)

-mostly affects young dogs
-occurs principally in the mouth
-can be very florid
-causes bad breath
-may require surgery
-may induce cancer

a) Canine Distemper
b) Canine Hepatitis
c) Canine Warts (Papillomavirus)

<p>-mostly affects young dogs<br>-occurs principally in the mouth<br>-can be very florid<br>-causes bad breath<br>-may require surgery <br>-may induce cancer<br><br>a) Canine Distemper<br>b) Canine Hepatitis<br>c) Canine Warts (Papillomavirus)</p>
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c) associated with squamous cell carcinomas

*Papillomavirus not paramyxovirus
*typing by sequencing not serology
*model for human cervical cancer

which of the following is true regarding Canine Warts:

a) it is caused by a paramyxovirus

b) "typing" is established by serology not sequencing

c) associated with squamous cell carcinomas

d) studied as a model for human prostate cancer

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sequencing

is "typing" of Canine Warts (Papillomavirus) established through sequencing or serology?

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cervical

Canine Warts have been associated with squamous cell carcinomas and are studied as human models of _________ cancer

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a) Parvovirus

___________________ viruses attack WBCs and cause immune disease

a) Parvovirus
b) Retrovirus
c) Herpesvirus
d) Influenzavirus

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false - it's very resistant

t/f: Parvovirus is not resistant to the environment and disinfectants

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dividing

Parvovirus only replicates in ________ cells

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c) Canine parvovirus

-generalized neonatal disease
-enteritis
-myocarditis
-panleukopenia

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine influenza
c) Canine parvovirus
d) Rabies

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true

t/f: Parvoviruses have been recovered in cattle, horses, and rodents but under natural conditions they are not known to cause disease in these species

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b) CPV2c

the "Canine Parvovirus" causing disease as we know it in dogs

a) CPV1c
b) CPV2c

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a) Canine Parvovirus 1

originally isolated from military dogs in Germany in 1967, called "Canine Minute Virus"; not associated with disease

a) Canine Parvovirus 1
b) Canine Parvovirus 2

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d) Parvoviruses

replicates only in dividing cells
*hence why it can cause pancytopenia or cerebellar hypertrophy in kittens (related to cats having delayed development of the cerebellum)

a) Papomaviruses
b) Reoviruses
c) Rhabdoviruses
d) Parvoviruses

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true

t/f: Parvovirus can cause abortion or fetal abnormalities

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c) highly contagious affecting all ages; <6m old pups most susceptible

Parvovirus is....

a) highly contagious but restricted to dogs less than 6 months
b) highly contagious affecting all ages over 6 months
c) highly contagious affecting all ages; <6m old pups most susceptible
d) highly contagious affecting all ages; <6w old pups most susceptible

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-clinical presentation is confirmed by ELISA or PCR

*the virus is difficult to isolate in cell culture

how would you diagnose Parvovirus?

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transmission by contact and fomites

how is Parvovirus transmitted?

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2-5 days

what is the incubation period of Canine Parvovirus?

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-Rottweilers
-Dobermans
-Labradors
-American Staffordshire Terries
-German Shepherds
-Alaskan Sled dogs

what dog breeds are primarily affected by Canine Parvovirus?

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c) Canine parvovirus

-fever // depression (dull, sleepy, not interested)
-anorexia // vomiting (may or may not be bloody)
-diarrhea (may or may not be bloody)
-appears ~2 days after infection
-dehydration

a) Canine distemper
b) Canine influenza
c) Canine parvovirus
d) Rabies

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c) Canine parvovirus

this disease is importantly very resistant in the environment, able to survive some of our typical disinfectants and requiring specific attention such as using chlorox

a) Canine distemper (a Paramyxovirus)
b) Canine influenza
c) Canine parvovirus
d) Rabies

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b) in historical CPV2

*common when CPV2 first appeared
*now puppies have a passive immunity usually so its rare

Mycocarditis in puppies (is or was) relatively common:

a) in historical CPV1
b) in historical CPV2
c) in modern CPV1
d) in modern CPV2

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Myocarditis

when Canine Parvovirus was newly found in dogs, puppies were seen to die due to this heart condition related to the virus

<p>when Canine Parvovirus was newly found in dogs, puppies were seen to die due to this heart condition related to the virus</p>
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d) CPV2 - it resulted from a mutation in feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) that allowed it to bind to canine TfR receptors

modern Canine Parvovirus was originally:

a) CPV1 - it resulted from a mutation in feline leukemia virus (FeLV) that allowed it to bind to canine TfR receptors

b) CPV2 - it resulted from a mutation in feline leukemia virus (FeLV) that allowed it to bind to canine TfR receptors

c) CPV1 - it resulted from a mutation in feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) that allowed it to bind to canine TfR receptors

d) CPV2 - it resulted from a mutation in feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) that allowed it to bind to canine TfR receptors

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false

*CPV2 has become extinct and replaced by variants. CPV-2c is the 2021 prevalent version

t/f: modern Canine Parvovirus is CPV2

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type-1 (TfR)

the capsid of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) uses the transferrin receptor ______________ to bind and enter feline cells for infection

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false - it cannot bind to the TfR of dog cells

t/f: FPLV is able to bind to the TfR of dog cells

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c) there is a proven 1-year MLV vaccine and it offers maximum protection against all strains

*utilizing the CPV-2b strain

which best describes the state of Parvovirus vaccination:

a) there is a proven 1-year MLV vaccine but it is strain specific
b) there is a proven 1-year mRNA vaccine and it offers max protection against all strains
c) there is a proven 1-year MLV vaccine and it offers maximum protection against all strains
d) there are issues adapting to the new CPV-2c strain

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bleach (clorox)

1:30 dilution

this disinfectant/household cleaner is one of the only ones that can inactivate canine parvovirus

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b) Coronaviruses

-in humans: cause colds, severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome

-in poultry: cause of infectious bronchitis

-in swine: cause transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine epidemic diarrhea

-in dogs, cattle, & horses: causes mild enteritis and mild respiratory disease

-in cats: causes feline infectious peritonitis

a) Parvoviruses

b) Coronaviruses

c) Papillomavirus

d) Canine Hepatits

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true

t/f: coronavirus is spread through contact with oral secretions or contact with infected feces

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