Unit 3 Vocabulary RHS-APHG 21-22

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Culture

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53 Terms

1

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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2

architecture

the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings; building design and materials will vary based upon culture and location.

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3

culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture.

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4

cultural relativism

the practice of judging a society by its own standards.

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5

Ethnocentrism

evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.

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6

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

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7

linguistic

relating to language

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8

sequent occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

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9

traditional architecture

buildings use building materials available and reflect social/environmental customs of the people EX) log cabins

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10

Postmodern Architecture

A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Postmodernism uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors.

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11

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

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12

gender

the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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13

Ethnic Neighborhood *enclave

a voluntary community where people of like origin reside by choice

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14

indigenous community

is the community of indigenous people living together working to keep their culture alive

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15

sense of place

Feelings are evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.

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16

Placemaking

The deliberate shaping of an environment to facilitate social interaction and improve a community's quality of life.

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17

Centripetal Force

the forces that unite people and countries

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18

centrifugal force

a force that divides people and countries

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19

relocation diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.

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20

Expansion Diffusion

The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.

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21

Contagious Diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.

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22

Hierarchical Diffusion

the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

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23

Stimulus Diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

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24

Creolization

A language resulting from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.

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25

lingua franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

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26

Colonialism

Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.

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27

Imperialism

domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region

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28

trade

Exchange of goods and services

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29

Urbanization

the growth of cities

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30

Globalization

Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

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31

time-space convergence/compression

with increasing/evolving technology, the amount of time it takes something to spread becomes smaller and smaller

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32

cultural convergence

The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.

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33

cultural divergence

the restriction of a culture from outside influences

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34

language family

A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

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35

Language Dialect

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

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36

Cultural Hearth

a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward

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37

Indo-European language family

Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by 50% of the world's people

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38

Toponym

the name given to a place on Earth

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39

Universalizing Religion

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.

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40

Christianity

A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.

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41

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed stresses belief in one God (Allah) and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

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42

Buddhism

a religion based on the teachings of the Buddha that developed in India in the 500s BC

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43

Sikhism

a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak.

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44

ethnic religion

religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts

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45

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

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46

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

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47

Acculturation

the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

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48

Assimilation

Adopting the traits of another culture. It often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country; however, it may also occur by force.

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49

Syncretism

a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith

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50

Multiculturalism

a condition in which ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life

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51

Artifacts

objects created by and used by humans

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52

Sacred Space

An area that has special religious significance or meaning that makes it worthy of reverence or devotion.

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53

Popular Culture

cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population

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