ASTRONOMY Unit Review (Defenitions)

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Solar system

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Solar system

the sun and all the objects in the orbit around it.

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planet

a large collection of matter that is generally spherical and revolves around the sun.

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cosmology

the study of the origin of the universe

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Star

a very large collection of matter that emits on the intense amount of energy (light and heat)

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constellation

star groupings

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polaris

the north star

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longitude

measured from east to west from the 0 degree line that crosses Greenwich, England

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latitude

measured from the Equator to either the North Pole or the South Pole

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Geocentric

Earth was the center of the universe

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Helocentric

sun-centered system

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The Sun

A medium sized star composed of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium.

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Supernova

Core that collapses and explodes.

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Low mass star

Very cool in temp. and ends their life span by forming a cool, dim, star called white dwarf

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Intermediate mass star

Fuels hydrogen into helium for energy

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High mass star

emits extremely large amounts of energy for a short period of time

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Apparent magnitude

the brightness of the star that we see

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absolute magnitude

the actual brightness of the star

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spectroscope

splits light up into a pattern of colours, like a rainbow

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Electomagnetic spectrum

consists of a visible spectrum of energy that we can see, as well as other energy that we cannot see.

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Blue shift

When light shifts are compressed, the light emitted appears more purple in colour

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Red shift

when light waves are spread out (or further apart), the light emitted appears more red in colour.

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Galaxy

huge collections or gas, dust, and billions of stars. The force of gravity attracts the tars in a galaxy to each other.

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Quasar

Looks like a small star, limits up to 100 times more energy than our galaxy, emits radio waves.

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Star cluster

contain 10 000-1 000 000 stars that are fairly close to each other and travel together.

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light year

the distance that light travels in a year

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astronomical unit

the distance between the sun and the earth

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parsec

measurement for distance that is equal to 3.26 light years

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planet

smaller than stars, and do not emit light

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asteroid

chunks of rock/metal that orbit the sun but are too small to be called planets. (minor planets)

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trojan

asteroids with orbits that cross paths with earth

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comet

chunks of ice/dust that orbit the sun

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meteroid

lumps of rock that can be trapped by earth's gravity and can be pulled into earth's atmosphere.

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meteor

meteoroids that enter earth's atmosphere

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shooting star

the streak of light produced across the sky as the meteor burns up.

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meteorite

meteoroids that do not completely burn up as meteors in the earth's atmosphere may strike the earth's surface.

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crater

bowl shaped holes on the earth's surface, made by large meteorites

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meteor shower

when earth passes through debris left behind from an old comet, there may be a swarm of visible meteors in the night sky.

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globular cluster

collections of 100 000 to 1 000 000 stars held together by gravity, arrnged in spherical shapes.

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neutron star

formed by very high mass stars, contracting even further.

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astronomy

the study of all objects in the universe.

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