Microbiology Lecture Exam 2

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Metabolism

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155 Terms

1

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism

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Catabolism

provides energy and building blocks for anabolism

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3

Anabolism

uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules

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4

Mechanism of enzymatic action

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5

What factors influence enzyme activity?

temperature, pH, substrate and enzyme concentration, inhibitors

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6

Enzyme inhibitors

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7

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism

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8

Metabolic pathway

is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell

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9

Metabolic pathway

is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell

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10

Enzymes are coded

By genes

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11

Enzymes are coded

By genes

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12

collision theory

states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide

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13

collision theory

states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide

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14

activation energy

Is needed to disrupt electronic configurations

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15

activation energy

Is needed to disrupt electronic configurations

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16

reaction rate

is the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction

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17

reaction rate

is the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction

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18

Reaction rate can be increased by ______ or by increasing___________

Enzymes, temperature, pressure

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19

Reaction rate can be increased by ______ or by increasing___________

Enzymes, temperature, pressure

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20

activation E barrier

Activation E (Ea)

  1. E need to control bonds into position for a reaction

  2. can be heat

  3. determines the rate of the reaction a. e.g. if Ea is low enough then reate will ve relatively high

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21

activation E barrier

Activation E (Ea)

  1. E need to control bonds into position for a reaction

  2. can be heat

  3. determines the rate of the reaction a. e.g. if Ea is low enough then reate will ve relatively high

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22

Apoenzyme

Protein

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23

Apoenzyme

Protein

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Coenzyme

No protein component

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25

Coenzyme

No protein component

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26

Examples of Coenzymes

NAD+, FAD+, NADP+

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27

Examples of Coenzymes

NAD+, FAD+, NADP+

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28

Holoenzyme

Apoenzyme plus cofactor

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29

2 prominent Enzyme inhibitors

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30

How do cells phosphorylation ADP to ATP?

Substrate level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Photophosphorylation

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31

Anabolic pathways use some ATP molecules by

Breaking a phosphate bond

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32

Substrate level phosphorylation

The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

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33

What is an example of substrate level phosphorylation?

ATP production in glycolysis

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34

Oxidation

Loss of electrons

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35

Reduction

gain of electrons

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36

Redox reaction

an oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaction

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37

In biological systems, the electrons are often associated with

hydrogen atoms

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38

Biological oxidations are often

dehydrogenations

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39

Carbohydrate catabolism

the breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy

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40

What are examples of carbohydrate catabolism?

Glycolysis Kreb's Cycle Electron transport chain

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41

Glycolysis

The energy investment phase of the glycolysis pathway that uses two ATP molecules to phosphorylation glucose forming two gluceralsehyde 3- phosphate molecules (G3P).

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42

The energy payoff phase of Glycolysis harnesses the energy in the-

G3P molecules, production of 4 ATP molecules, Two NADH molecules and 2 pyruvates

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43

What are the two alternatives to Glycolysis pathway

Pentose phosphate pathway Entner Doudoroff pathway

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44

Pentose phosphate pathway

Uses pentoses and NADPH operates with glycolysis

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Entner-Doudoroff pathway

Produces NADPH and ATP Does not involve glycolysis Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium

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46

The Krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

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47

Coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

A coenzyme used in various biochemical reactions as a carrier of acyl groups. Does not enter Krebs Cycle

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48

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

series of electron carrier molecules that are in turn oxidized and redialed as electrons are passed down the chain

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49

Chemiosmosis

A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient produces from the Electron Transport Chain and the ATP synthase enzyme.

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50

aerobic respiration

the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)

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51

anarobic respiration

final electron acceptor is NOT O2 Yields less energy than aerobic respiration

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52

Fermentation

Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen Microbial metabolism

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53

Fermentation (scientific definition)

Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules Does not require oxygen Does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor

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54

Yeast is the only microorganism to

Produce only ethanol (and CO2)

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55

Lipid catabolism

-Lipids are hydrolyzed by lipase into Glycerol (later into DHAP) and Fatty Acids (FA), -Fatty Acids are oxidized via the beta-oxidation pathway to make acetyl-CoA. to then enter the kreb cycle

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56

Protein catabolism example

Urea————>NH3 + CO2

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57

Two types of photosynthesis

oxygenic and anoxygenic

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58

Photo:

Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

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59

Synthesis:

Carbon fixation: fixing carbons into organic molecules Light-independent (dark) reaction: Calvin-Benson Cycle

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60

The Calvin cycle is ____________ backwards

Glycolysis

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61

Rubulose biphosphate carbonylase (RuBisCO)

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62

What are the two alternatives to Glycolysis pathway

Pentose phosphate pathway Entner Doudoroff pathway

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63

Pentose phosphate pathway

Uses pentoses and NADPH operates with glycolysis

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64

Entner-Doudoroff pathway

Produces NADPH and ATP Does not involve glycolysis Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium

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65

The Krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

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66

Coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

A coenzyme used in various biochemical reactions as a carrier of acyl groups. Does not enter Krebs Cycle

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67

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

series of electron carrier molecules that are in turn oxidized and redialed as electrons are passed down the chain

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68

Chemiosmosis

A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient produces from the Electron Transport Chain and the ATP synthase enzyme.

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69

aerobic respiration

the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)

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70

anarobic respiration

final electron acceptor is NOT O2 Yields less energy than aerobic respiration

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71

Fermentation

Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen Microbial metabolism

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72

Fermentation (scientific definition)

Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules Does not require oxygen Does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor

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73

Yeast is the only microorganism to

Produce only ethanol (and CO2)

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74

Lipid catabolism

-Lipids are hydrolyzed by lipase into Glycerol (later into DHAP) and Fatty Acids (FA), -Fatty Acids are oxidized via the beta-oxidation pathway to make acetyl-CoA. to then enter the kreb cycle

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75

Protein catabolism example

Urea————>NH3 + CO2

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76

Two types of photosynthesis

oxygenic and anoxygenic

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77

Photo:

Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

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78

Synthesis:

Carbon fixation: fixing carbons into organic molecules Light-independent (dark) reaction: Calvin-Benson Cycle

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79

The Calvin cycle is ____________ backwards

Glycolysis

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80

Rubulose biphosphate carbonylase (RuBisCO)

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81

Holoenzyme

Apoenzyme plus cofactor

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82

Catabolism

provides energy and building blocks for anabolism

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83

Anabolism

uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules

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84

carbohydrate catabolism

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85

Glycolysis pic

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86

Krebs cycle pic

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87

Electron transport chain pic

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88

Calvin cycle

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89

Psychotrophs

Grow between 0C and 20 to 30C Cause food spoilage

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90

Physical requirements for microbial growth

  1. Temperature most/best between 10-80 C

  2. pH most/best between 6.5-7.5

  3. Osmotic pressure

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91

Acidophiles grow

In acidic environments

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92

Molds and yeast grow between what pH

pH 5-6

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93

Hypertonic environments ( increase in salt or sugar) cause

plasmolysis

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94

Plasmolysis

This happens when a cell shrinks inside its cell wall while the cell wall remains intact.

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95

extreme or obligate halophiles

require high osmotic pressure

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96

facultative halophiles

tolerate high osmotic pressure

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97

The Effect of Oxygen on the Growth of Various Types of Bacteria

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98

Toxic oxygen

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99

Reducing media

Contain chemicals (thioglycolate or oxyrase) that combine O2 Heated to drive off O2

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100

Capnophiles

Microbes that require high CO2 conditions CO2 packet Candle jar

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