Ultimate AP Gov review

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Politics

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Here's a document going more in depth into the required documents and cases: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1cHfZwY1Tly6s0T9bYgv1cBAqasTvJ-1-kP9F0XuxsGQ/edit?usp=sharing

279 Terms

1

Politics

The process of influencing the actions and policies of government

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2

Government

The rules and institutions that make up a system of policy making

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3

Democracy

A system of government in which power is held by the people

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4

Social Contract

People allow their government to rule over them, giving up some freedom, in order to ensure order and function in society

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5

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that a government’s right to rule derives from the people

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6

Republicanism

A system in which the government’s power comes from the people

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7

Inalienable Rights

Rights which the government cannot take away

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8

Participatory Theory

A theory that widespread political participation is essential for democratic government

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9

Civil Society Groups

Independent Aassociations outside of Government control

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10

Pluralist Theory

A democratic theory that emphasizes the role of groups in policy making

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11

Elitist Theory

A theory that the societal elite have a disproportionate amount of influence in policymaking

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12

Constitutional Republic

A democratic system where people elect representatives and the constitution is the supreme law

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13

Montesquieu

A french political philosopher who emphasized belief in the separation of powers

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14

John Locke

An english political philosopher who is primarily credited for the idea of unalienable rights in the American constitution

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15

Staples of American politics (6)

Popular Sovereignty, Free enterprise, Liberty, Individualism, Limited Government, Equality

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16

The job of government

Balancing freedom and security of the people

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17

Constitution

A document which sets out the fundamental principles of government and establishes the institutions of government

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18

Articles of Confederation

A governing document that created a union of 13 sovereign states in which the states, not the national government, were supreme

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19

Unicameral legislature

A legislature with a singular house

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20

Shay’s Rebellion

A popular uprising under the Articles of Confederation which is primarily credited for exposing the flaws in the document

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21

Constitutional Convention

A meeting attended by state delegates in 1787 to fix the Articles of Confederation

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22

Writ of Habeas Corpus

The right of detainees to know their charges

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23

Bill of Attender

when the legislature declares someone guilty without trial

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24

Ex post facto laws

punishing people for acts that were not crimes at the time they were committed

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25

James Madison

The “Father of the Constitution”

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26

Reason for the constitution’s successful drafting

Delegates were practical, rational, pragmatic, professional politicians who had to seek popular approval of their new form of government

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27

Great compromise

Debate over state representation in the legislature. Created the bicameral legislature

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28

3/5 compromise

Debate over representation in the house of representatives, counted a slave as 3/5 of a person

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29

Critical issue of individual rights

ensured writ to habeas corpus, banned ex post facto laws and bills of attainder, banned religious qualifications for office, and pledged to make a bill of rights.

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30

Separation of Powers

A design of government to distribute the power across institutions in order to avoid one institution becoming too powerful (concept from John Locke)

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31

Checks and Ballences

A system of government where each branch can prevent the other from making policy

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32

Federalism

Sharing power between the national and state governments

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33

Legislative branch

institute responsible for making laws

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34

Expressed/Enumerated Powers

Authority specifically assigned to a branch of government in the constitution

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35

Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)

Grants congress the power to carry out its enumerated powers in any way necessary to the health of the nation

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36

Implied Powers

Authority of the federal government that goes beyond its expressed powers

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37

Executive Branch

Institution responsible for carrying out laws decided by congress

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38

Judicial Branch

Institution responsible for hearing the decided cases from the federal courts and penning national law

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39

Supremacy Clause

the constitutional provision declaring that the constitution and all national laws and treaties are the supreme law of the land

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40

Marbury vs. Madison

The case of the midnight judges which established the supremacy clause and judicial review

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41

Amendment

The process to make changes to the constitution

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42

Federalists

Supporters of the proposed constitution who supported a strong national government

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43

Anti Federalists

Opposers of the proposed constitution who favored state and individual rights

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44

Federalist papers

A series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay that laid out the theory behind the constitution

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45

Federalist no. 51

“If men were angels.” Argued for separation of powers arguing it would help keep the government from harming the people as each branch would jealously guard their own power

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46

Faction

A group of self interested people who use the government to get what they want, trampling the rights of others in the process

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47

Federalist No. 10

Madison Argued the dangers of factions and how they could be mitigated by a large republican government in order to maintain majority rule while protecting individual rights

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48

Tyranny of Majority and Minority

Either the minority loses their voice or the majority does not get represented enough, neither is good

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49

Brutus No. 1

Argued that the constitution was tyrannical as it would take too much power from the states and the people, specifically saying a standing army and the necessary and proper clause would give the national government way too much power

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50

The Constitution of the United States: Article 1

Detailed the Legislative Branches and their enumerated powers

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51

The Constitution of the United States: Article 2

Detailed the executive branch and the power of the president with less enumerated powers, along with the electoral college

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52

The Constitution of the United States: Article 3

Detailed the power of the judicial branch, at the time rather unpowerful

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53

Brutus

An antifederalist who feared the power of the constitution to infringe on individual and state rights

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54

McCullough vs. Maryland

State tried to tax the national bank and it was deemed unconstitutional under the supremacy clause

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55

Brown vs. Board of Education

Overruled Plessy vs. Ferguson’s separate but equal and ruled for equal protection under the law regardless of color

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56

10th Amendment

Reserved powers amendment which gave all reserved powers to the states

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57

Dred Scott decision

Overrode the Missouri Compromise

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58

Dual Federalism

The idea that a separation of state and federal power is desirable and achievable

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59

Modern Federalism

Also known as cooperative federalism, it is where the state and federal government work together and occasionally overlap

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60

Fiscal Federalism

Spending of federal funds on state and local programs (often used to control states)

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61

Categorical Grants

Money granted by the government which can only be used on a specific project

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62

Block Grants

Money granted by the government that allows the states to decide what is to be done with it

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63

Devolution

Passing down authority to the states and away from the national government

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64

Unfunded state mandates

The government telling the states to do something without giving them money to accomplish the task

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65

Unitary system

A system where the central government has authority over all subnational governments and is able to delegate any powers

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66

Confederate System

Subnational governments have more power than the national government and the national government is heavily dependent on the states

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67

Exclusive Powers

Powers which only the national government may exercise

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68

Commerce Clause

Gives congress the power to regulate interstate commerce

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69

Concurrent Powers

Powers shared by both the state and federal governments (ex. taxing)

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70

Full faith and credit clause

Requires states to recognize the public acts, records, and civil court proceedings from other states

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71

Extradition

Requirement that officials in one state must return a defendant to another state where the crime was committed

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72

Privileges and Immunities Clause

Prevents states from discriminating against people from out of state

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73

13th Amendment

Outlawed slavery

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74

14th Amendment

Established naturalized citizenship and outlawed denying citizenship

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75

Equal Protection clause

all citizens are granted equal protection under the law

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76

15th Amendment

Gave african americans the right to vote

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77

Selective Incorperation

The process through which the supreme court applies fundamental rights in the bill of rights to the states on a case by case basis

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78

Revenue sharing

the federal government rerouting tax revenue back to the states to spend on any governmental task

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79

U.S. vs. Lopez

Limited the legislatures power to pass laws under the commerce clause and gave more power to the states (Gun in a school zone)

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80

1st amendment (5 freedoms)

Freedom of speech, religion, press, petition, and assembly (RAPPS)

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81

2nd Amendment

Right to bear arms

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82

8th amendment

outlawed cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail fines

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83

4th amendment

unreasonable search and seizure

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84

5th amendment

right to a jury and due process

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85

6th amendment

right to a speedy, public trial

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86

9th amendment

ensured the constitution would not limit the rights of citizens

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87

Requirements for being in the house

Must be at least 25, a US citizen, and a resident in their elected district for at least a year

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88

Requirements for being in the senate

Must be at least 30, a US citizen for 9 years, and a resident of their state

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89

Requirements for being the president

Must be at least 35, a born US citizen, and a resident of the US for 14 years

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90

The Constitution of the United States: Article 4

Relationship between the different branches

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91

The Constitution of the United States: Article 5

The amendment process

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92

The Constitution of the United States: Article 6

The supremacy clause

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93

The Constitution of the United States: Article 7

The Ratification requirements

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94

16th Amendment

Gave congress the power to tax income

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95

21st Amendment

Ended prohibition, nullifying the 18th amendment

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96

18th amendment

Prohibited alcohol

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97

22nd Amendment

created the two term limit for presidents

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98

25th amendment

detailed the process in the case that the president died, became incapacitated, or otherwise unfit to lead

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99

26th Amendment

Made the voting age 18

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100

Incumbency

Once you get your foot in the door, it’s a lot easier to stay in politics

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