biology unit 1

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vocab for unit 1

70 Terms

1

acid rain

precipitation that is the result of air pollution reacting with water molecules in the atmosphere

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2

animalia

organisms in this kingdom are multicellular heterotrophs without cell walls

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3

archaebacteria

kingdom that includes bacteria that live in extreme environments

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4

autotrophs

an organism that can make its own food; aka producer; one example is plants (by photosynthesis)

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5

binomial nomenclature

two-word naming system for all organisms developed by Linnaeus; gives the scientific name (consisting of genus and species); ex. Homo sapiens

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6

bioaccumulation

the increase in concentration of pollutants in the tissues of organisms as you move up trophic levels in an ecosystem; aka biomagnification

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7

camouflage

an adaptation that enables a species to blend in with its environment

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8

carbon cycle

incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels.

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9

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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10

class

a group of closely related orders

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11

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.

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12

classification

the process of grouping organisms based on their physical similarities and DNA

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13

climate change

a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed rising levels of carbon dioxide and pollution; formerly called global warming

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14

competition

the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

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15

consumer

An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms; aka "heterotroph"

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16

courtship

behavior used to attract a mate

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17

decomposer

organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter; an organism that carries out decomposition

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18

deforestation

the destruction of forests

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19

dichotomous key

a series of paired statements used to help identify an organism

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20

domain

the largest taxon; there are 3--Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

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21

eubacteria

kingdom that includes bacteria that live everywhere (except in extreme environments)

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22

eukaryote

a cell that has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles

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23

eutrophication

excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plants/algae and a death of animals from a lack of oxygen.

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24

exponential growth

j-shaped, explosive pattern population

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25

external fertilization

process in which eggs are fertilized outside the female's body; ex. most fish

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26

family

a group of closely related genera

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27

fossil fuels

Coal, oil, and natural gas coming from the ancient remains of plants and animals; the burning of these is a major contributor to climate change

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28

fungi

kingdom that includes organisms which are heterotrophs that have cell walls made of chitin; molds, yeasts, and mushrooms are examples

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29

genus

a group of closely related species

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30

greenhouse effect

normal warming effect caused when the sun's rays are trapped by gases in the Earth's atmosphere; without this, the Earth would be a ball of ice

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31

habitat destruction

the loss of natural habitat for species that can lead to extinction

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32

habituation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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33

heterotroph

an organism that must get food from its environment; aka consumer; one example is animals

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34

hibernation

a dormant state of lowered metabolism that is an adaptation for surviving winter

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35

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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36

internal fertilzation

process in which eggs are fertilized inside the female's body: ex. humans

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37

invasive species

plants and animals that are deliberately/accidentally introduced into an area whose populations explode because they have no known natural predators and out-compete native species for resources leading to their decline

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38

kingdom

second largest taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla

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39

limiting factor

an environmental condition that restricts the size of a population; examples include: disease, predation, and natural disasters

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40

multicellular

made of two or more cells

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41

mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit; ex. good bacteria in the human gut

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42

nitrogen cycle

transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere

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43

nitrogen fixation

process of converting nitrogen in the air, into a form that plants and animals can use (nitrates and nitrites)

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44

non-native species

a species that is not naturally found in an ecosystem, and that does not hinder the survival of other species there

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45

order

a group of closely related families

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46

organism

a living thing

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47

parasitism

form of symbiosis in which one organism, the parasite, benefits and the other organism, the host, is harmed; ex. tick and a dog

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48

pheromone

A chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of another animal of the same species

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49

phylum

group of closely related classes

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50

placenta

an organ in teh uterus of a pregnant mammal, that nourishes the fetus through the umbilical cord

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51

plantae

kingdom with organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs and have cell walls made of cellulose

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52

predator

an animal that hunts other animals for food

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53

prey

an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food

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54

producer

an organism that makes its own food; aka "autotroph"

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55

prokaryote

a bacterial cell; a cell that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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56

protista

the most diverse kingdom; some are plant-like, some are animal-like, and some are fungus-like; examples include: euglena, paramecium, and amoeba

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57

seed

a plant structure that contains an embryo & food source surrounded by a protective coat

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58

species

the smallest/most specific taxon; a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

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59

spore

a reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating; made by bacteria, fungi, and some plants like ferns

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60

Stewardship

commitment to the responsible management of natural resources and sustainable actions to help preserve the environment

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61

suckling

when a young mammal nurses from its mother

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62

symbiosis

a close relationship between two species living together

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63

taxis

movement toward or away from a stimulus

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64

taxonomy

branch of biology that involves classifying organisms into groups based upon similar characteristics

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65

territoriality

defense of a space against encroachment by other individuals

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66

trial and error learning

behavior in which an animal learns to perform a behavior over and over again until success is achieved; ex. learning to ride a bike

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67

tropism

growth respond of a plant to a stimulus

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68

unicellular

made of one cell

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69

cell

smallest unit of life

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70

waste lagoon

body of water used to dispose of animal wastes on farms; these become problematic when they flood into rivers/drinking water supplies

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