Lecture 07

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Epidermis

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Epidermis

<p>-outermost layer</p><p>-composed of epithelium</p><p>-avascular</p><p>-protects underlying layers</p>

-outermost layer

-composed of epithelium

-avascular

-protects underlying layers

<p>-outermost layer</p><p>-composed of epithelium</p><p>-avascular</p><p>-protects underlying layers</p>
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Dermis

<p>-underlying layers</p><p>-vascular &amp; innervated</p><p>-provides strength and resilience</p><p>-composed of CT</p><p>-contains smooth muscles (associated w/ hair follicles) and nerve fibers to detect and monitor sensory input</p>

-underlying layers

-vascular & innervated

-provides strength and resilience

-composed of CT

-contains smooth muscles (associated w/ hair follicles) and nerve fibers to detect and monitor sensory input

<p>-underlying layers</p><p>-vascular &amp; innervated</p><p>-provides strength and resilience</p><p>-composed of CT</p><p>-contains smooth muscles (associated w/ hair follicles) and nerve fibers to detect and monitor sensory input</p>
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Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

<p>-composed of areolar and adipose CT</p><p>-not technically part of the skin</p><p>-anchors the skin to underlying structures</p><p>-acts as a shock absorber &amp; insulator</p>

-composed of areolar and adipose CT

-not technically part of the skin

-anchors the skin to underlying structures

-acts as a shock absorber & insulator

<p>-composed of areolar and adipose CT</p><p>-not technically part of the skin</p><p>-anchors the skin to underlying structures</p><p>-acts as a shock absorber &amp; insulator</p>
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Function of the ___

Protection -chemical barrier -physical barrier -biological barrier -temp. barrier -radiation (UV) barrier

Prevention of Water Loss -water resistant

Metabolic Regulation -vitamin D production -other minor metabolic roles

Secretion & Absorption -small amounts of metabolic waste (water, salts, urea, etc.) -selectively permeable

Immunity -identify and destroy pathogens -alerts immune system & initiates immune response

Epidermis

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Function of the ___

Temp. Regulation -blood vessels -sweat glands -adipose

Sensory Reception -mechanoreceptor (touch, pressure, vibration, etc.) -nociceptor (pain) -thermoreceptor (temperature)

Dermis

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Keratinocytes (cells of epidermis)

<p>-most abundant</p><p>-produces keratin (fibrous protein that forms intermediate filaments) that provides the protective properties of the skin</p><p>-tightly connected to one another by desmosomes</p>

-most abundant

-produces keratin (fibrous protein that forms intermediate filaments) that provides the protective properties of the skin

-tightly connected to one another by desmosomes

<p>-most abundant</p><p>-produces keratin (fibrous protein that forms intermediate filaments) that provides the protective properties of the skin</p><p>-tightly connected to one another by desmosomes</p>
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Melanocyte (cells of epidermis)

<p>-have long, branching spiderlike processes</p><p>-synthesize and store up the pigment of melanin in response to UV light</p><p>-melanin granules are taken up by keratinocytes &amp; accumulate on the superficial side of the nucleus to protect the nucleus from UV light</p>

-have long, branching spiderlike processes

-synthesize and store up the pigment of melanin in response to UV light

-melanin granules are taken up by keratinocytes & accumulate on the superficial side of the nucleus to protect the nucleus from UV light

<p>-have long, branching spiderlike processes</p><p>-synthesize and store up the pigment of melanin in response to UV light</p><p>-melanin granules are taken up by keratinocytes &amp; accumulate on the superficial side of the nucleus to protect the nucleus from UV light</p>
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From outer-to innermost layer

<p>stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale</p>

stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale

<p>stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale</p>
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Epidermis consists of

-keratinized stratified, squamous epithelium

-3 innermost layer consists of living cells

-two outermost layers are dead cells

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Stratum Basale

<p>-deepest layer</p><p>-attached to a basement membrane that separates it from the underlying dermis</p><p>-epidermal ridges increase grip</p><p>-single layer of cuboidal to low columnar cells *(most are keratinocytes) *(small population of melanocytes)</p>

-deepest layer

-attached to a basement membrane that separates it from the underlying dermis

-epidermal ridges increase grip

-single layer of cuboidal to low columnar cells *(most are keratinocytes) *(small population of melanocytes)

<p>-deepest layer</p><p>-attached to a basement membrane that separates it from the underlying dermis</p><p>-epidermal ridges increase grip</p><p>-single layer of cuboidal to low columnar cells *(most are keratinocytes) *(small population of melanocytes)</p>
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Stratum Spinosum

<p>-overlies the stratum basale</p><p>-several layers thick</p><p>-keratinocytes from basale differentiate into non-dividing, specialized keratinocytes</p><p>-attached to neighbors by desmosomes results in spiny appearance</p>

-overlies the stratum basale

-several layers thick

-keratinocytes from basale differentiate into non-dividing, specialized keratinocytes

-attached to neighbors by desmosomes results in spiny appearance

<p>-overlies the stratum basale</p><p>-several layers thick</p><p>-keratinocytes from basale differentiate into non-dividing, specialized keratinocytes</p><p>-attached to neighbors by desmosomes results in spiny appearance</p>
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Stratum Granulosum

<p>-3 to 5 layers thick</p><p>-keratinization *(keratinocytes produce keratohyalin (precursor to keratin) granules) *(nucleus and organelles begin to disintegrate) *(cells begin to die, due to lack of organelles &amp; being pushed further away from source of nutrients)</p><p>-won&apos;t be complete until after keratinocytes rise to superficial layer</p>

-3 to 5 layers thick

-keratinization *(keratinocytes produce keratohyalin (precursor to keratin) granules) *(nucleus and organelles begin to disintegrate) *(cells begin to die, due to lack of organelles & being pushed further away from source of nutrients)

-won't be complete until after keratinocytes rise to superficial layer

<p>-3 to 5 layers thick</p><p>-keratinization *(keratinocytes produce keratohyalin (precursor to keratin) granules) *(nucleus and organelles begin to disintegrate) *(cells begin to die, due to lack of organelles &amp; being pushed further away from source of nutrients)</p><p>-won&apos;t be complete until after keratinocytes rise to superficial layer</p>
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Stratum Lucidum

-thin, clear layer about 2-3 cell layers thick *(protects against friction) *(found only in thick skin on palms of hands and soles of feet)

-cells have become flattened and featureless

-filled with eleidin (an intermediate protein formed by keratohyalin) during keratin maturation *(helps protect skin from UV light)

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Stratum Corneum

<p>-most superficial layer</p><p>-individual keratinocyte from stratum basale to strata corneum exists for about 4 weeks *(lost due to desaquamation)</p><p>-15 to 30 layers of dead, scaly interlocked keratinized cells *(cells are anucleate) *(tightly packed together) *(contain large amounts of keratin)</p><p>-protective, durable overcoat *(thickened plasma membrane enhanced by special glycoproteins waterproofs the strata corneum) *(relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assault)</p>

-most superficial layer

-individual keratinocyte from stratum basale to strata corneum exists for about 4 weeks *(lost due to desaquamation)

-15 to 30 layers of dead, scaly interlocked keratinized cells *(cells are anucleate) *(tightly packed together) *(contain large amounts of keratin)

-protective, durable overcoat *(thickened plasma membrane enhanced by special glycoproteins waterproofs the strata corneum) *(relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assault)

<p>-most superficial layer</p><p>-individual keratinocyte from stratum basale to strata corneum exists for about 4 weeks *(lost due to desaquamation)</p><p>-15 to 30 layers of dead, scaly interlocked keratinized cells *(cells are anucleate) *(tightly packed together) *(contain large amounts of keratin)</p><p>-protective, durable overcoat *(thickened plasma membrane enhanced by special glycoproteins waterproofs the strata corneum) *(relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assault)</p>
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Thick Skin

-5 layers (contains stratum lucidum

-found on palms of hands and soles of feet

-contains sweat glands

-lacks hair follicles and sebaceous glands

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Thin Skin

-4 layers (lacks stratum lucidum)

-covers most of the body

-contains sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands

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Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans')

-found within strata spinosum and granulosum

-phagocytic cell capable of stimulating immune response

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Melanin

<p>-only pigment made in the skin</p><p>-delivered to keratinocytes within melanosomes</p><p>-everyone has the same relative number of melanocytes</p><p>-varying shades of skin color reflects the amount of melanin produced and retained</p><p>-freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin</p>

-only pigment made in the skin

-delivered to keratinocytes within melanosomes

-everyone has the same relative number of melanocytes

-varying shades of skin color reflects the amount of melanin produced and retained

-freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin

<p>-only pigment made in the skin</p><p>-delivered to keratinocytes within melanosomes</p><p>-everyone has the same relative number of melanocytes</p><p>-varying shades of skin color reflects the amount of melanin produced and retained</p><p>-freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin</p>
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Eumelanin

-black/brown pigment

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Pheomelanin

-red/yellow pigment

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Carotene

-yellow/orange pigment found in certain plants

-accumulates in the stratum corneum & fatty tissues of the hypodermis

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Tactile discs

<p>-Merkel (tactile) cells (in stratum basale)</p><p>-mechanoreceptors</p><p>-small receptive fields</p><p>-response to tactile stimulation help determine shape and texture of object *(fine touch) *(pressure)</p>

-Merkel (tactile) cells (in stratum basale)

-mechanoreceptors

-small receptive fields

-response to tactile stimulation help determine shape and texture of object *(fine touch) *(pressure)

<p>-Merkel (tactile) cells (in stratum basale)</p><p>-mechanoreceptors</p><p>-small receptive fields</p><p>-response to tactile stimulation help determine shape and texture of object *(fine touch) *(pressure)</p>
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Free nerve endings

<p>-responsible for pain</p><p>-tickling (light touch)</p><p>-itching (noxious stimuli)</p>

-responsible for pain

-tickling (light touch)

-itching (noxious stimuli)

<p>-responsible for pain</p><p>-tickling (light touch)</p><p>-itching (noxious stimuli)</p>
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Epidermis produces Vitamin D

<p>-vitamin D3 produced in the skin on exposure to UV light from a cholesterol precursor *(may also be absorbed in diet)</p><p>-converted to its active form by 2 enzymatic reactions *(one in liver) *(one in kidney)</p><p>-increases intestinal reabsorption of Ca2+ and (PO4)3-</p>

-vitamin D3 produced in the skin on exposure to UV light from a cholesterol precursor *(may also be absorbed in diet)

-converted to its active form by 2 enzymatic reactions *(one in liver) *(one in kidney)

-increases intestinal reabsorption of Ca2+ and (PO4)3-

<p>-vitamin D3 produced in the skin on exposure to UV light from a cholesterol precursor *(may also be absorbed in diet)</p><p>-converted to its active form by 2 enzymatic reactions *(one in liver) *(one in kidney)</p><p>-increases intestinal reabsorption of Ca2+ and (PO4)3-</p>
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Dermis

<p>-cells are typical of those found in CT proper</p><p>-richly innervated, vascularized</p><p>-possesses lymphatic vessels</p><p>-2 layers *(papillary layer) *(reticular layer)</p>

-cells are typical of those found in CT proper

-richly innervated, vascularized

-possesses lymphatic vessels

-2 layers *(papillary layer) *(reticular layer)

<p>-cells are typical of those found in CT proper</p><p>-richly innervated, vascularized</p><p>-possesses lymphatic vessels</p><p>-2 layers *(papillary layer) *(reticular layer)</p>
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Papillary layer

-located near the superior surface

-areolar CT

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Dermal papillae

-small projections indenting into epidermis

-contains free nerve endings = pain receptors, touch receptors

-interdigit with epidermal ridges to increase area of contact and interlock the 2 layers

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Reticular layer

<p>-dense irregular CT underlying the papillary layer of the dermis *(mostly collagen fibers running parallel to the skin surface) -&gt; creates &quot;cleavage lines&quot; *(contains elastin providing elasticity)</p><p>-highly vascularized and innervated *(nerves allow us to distinguish diff. types of sensory stimuli) *(blood vessels supply nutrients for dermis and epidermis) *(blood vessels also play a role in temp. regulation)</p><p>-possesses flexure lines *(dermal folds where dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures)</p>

-dense irregular CT underlying the papillary layer of the dermis *(mostly collagen fibers running parallel to the skin surface) -> creates "cleavage lines" *(contains elastin providing elasticity)

-highly vascularized and innervated *(nerves allow us to distinguish diff. types of sensory stimuli) *(blood vessels supply nutrients for dermis and epidermis) *(blood vessels also play a role in temp. regulation)

-possesses flexure lines *(dermal folds where dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures)

<p>-dense irregular CT underlying the papillary layer of the dermis *(mostly collagen fibers running parallel to the skin surface) -&gt; creates &quot;cleavage lines&quot; *(contains elastin providing elasticity)</p><p>-highly vascularized and innervated *(nerves allow us to distinguish diff. types of sensory stimuli) *(blood vessels supply nutrients for dermis and epidermis) *(blood vessels also play a role in temp. regulation)</p><p>-possesses flexure lines *(dermal folds where dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures)</p>
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Meissner's (tactile) corpuscle

<p>-dermal papillae -light touch, pressure, and vibrations</p>

-dermal papillae -light touch, pressure, and vibrations

<p>-dermal papillae -light touch, pressure, and vibrations</p>
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Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscle

<p>-reticular layer of dermis -deep pressure &amp; vibration</p>

-reticular layer of dermis -deep pressure & vibration

<p>-reticular layer of dermis -deep pressure &amp; vibration</p>
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Ruffiini corpuscle

<p>-reticular layer among collagen bundles -pressure and skin distortion</p>

-reticular layer among collagen bundles -pressure and skin distortion

<p>-reticular layer among collagen bundles -pressure and skin distortion</p>
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Hair

<p>-flexible strands of dead keratinized cells produced by the hair follicle *(&quot;hard keratin&quot;) *(tougher and more durable) *(individual cells do not flake off)</p>

-flexible strands of dead keratinized cells produced by the hair follicle *("hard keratin") *(tougher and more durable) *(individual cells do not flake off)

<p>-flexible strands of dead keratinized cells produced by the hair follicle *(&quot;hard keratin&quot;) *(tougher and more durable) *(individual cells do not flake off)</p>
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Function of ___ -protection *(head) sunburn and injury *(nasal and ear) traps particles *(eyes) prevent sweat and particles from endangering the eye

-heat retention *(acts like a cap to prevent heat from escaping scalp)

-sensory reception *(tactile receptors that detect light touch)

-visual identification *(determining age and sex) *(identifying individuals)

-chemical signal dispersion *(pheromones in axillary and pubic regions)

Hair

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Shaft (structure of hair)

<p>-projects above skin surface</p><p>-dead epithelial cells</p>

-projects above skin surface

-dead epithelial cells

<p>-projects above skin surface</p><p>-dead epithelial cells</p>
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Root (structure of hair)

<p>-lies below the skin surface</p><p>-dead epithelial cells</p>

-lies below the skin surface

-dead epithelial cells

<p>-lies below the skin surface</p><p>-dead epithelial cells</p>
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Hair bulb (structure of hair)

<p>-region at base of hair follicle</p><p>-located deep in dermis</p><p>-consists of living epithelial cells</p><p>-origin of hair</p>

-region at base of hair follicle

-located deep in dermis

-consists of living epithelial cells

-origin of hair

<p>-region at base of hair follicle</p><p>-located deep in dermis</p><p>-consists of living epithelial cells</p><p>-origin of hair</p>
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Hair papilla (structure of hair)

<p>-possessing capillaries supplying nutrients and nerves (root hair plexus) of hair</p><p>-hair matrix contains cells that become the hair shaft</p><p>-contain hard keratin proteins</p>

-possessing capillaries supplying nutrients and nerves (root hair plexus) of hair

-hair matrix contains cells that become the hair shaft

-contain hard keratin proteins

<p>-possessing capillaries supplying nutrients and nerves (root hair plexus) of hair</p><p>-hair matrix contains cells that become the hair shaft</p><p>-contain hard keratin proteins</p>
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Medulla (structure of hair)

<p>-innermost portion</p><p>-remnant of the matrix</p><p>-loosely arranged cells containing soft, flexible keratin and air pockets</p>

-innermost portion

-remnant of the matrix

-loosely arranged cells containing soft, flexible keratin and air pockets

<p>-innermost portion</p><p>-remnant of the matrix</p><p>-loosely arranged cells containing soft, flexible keratin and air pockets</p>
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Cortex (structure of hair)

<p>-external to the medulla</p><p>-several layers of flattened cells</p><p>-hard keratin</p>

-external to the medulla

-several layers of flattened cells

-hard keratin

<p>-external to the medulla</p><p>-several layers of flattened cells</p><p>-hard keratin</p>
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Cuticle (structure of hair)

<p>-outer layer consisting of a single layer of cells</p><p>-overlap one another (like shingles) away from the root</p>

-outer layer consisting of a single layer of cells

-overlap one another (like shingles) away from the root

<p>-outer layer consisting of a single layer of cells</p><p>-overlap one another (like shingles) away from the root</p>
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Hair follicle

-folds down from the epidermis into the dermis

-wall has 2 layers *(connective tissue root sheath) *(epithelial root sheath)

-arrector pili muscle

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Connective tissue root sheath

-derived from the dermis

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Epithelial root sheath

-derived from the epidermis

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Arrector pili muscle

-responsible for contraction of the hair follicle

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Anagen

-active phase

-producing new hairs

-pushes club hair out of follicle

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Catagen

-end of active phase

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Telogen

-resting phase for the follicle

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Club hairs

-hair follicle is inactive

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Lanugo hair

-fine, downy hair found on a fetus (third trimester)

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Vellus hair

-replaces lanugo hair

-fine, pale body hair

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Terminal hair

-darker, thicker hair located on the head, axillary, and pubic regions

-face and chest of adult males

-hair growth is dependent on nutrition and hormones

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Shaft shape determines the

-appearance of the hair

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Ribbonlike

-kinky hair

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Round

-straight and coarse

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Oval

-wavy hair

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Hair pigment is made in the melanocytes

-found at the base of the follicle

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Gray hair

-diminished melanin production

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White hair

-no melanin production

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Nails

-scalelike modifications of the stratum corneum *(compromised of hard keratin)

-protect the distal tips of the digits

-assist in grasping objects

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3 parts of the nail

-nail plate

-nail bed *(underlies the nail plate)

-nail matric *(actively growing part of the nail) *(produces nail bed)

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Lunula (structure of the nail)

-"white crescent"

-most proximal portion of the nail plate

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Eponychium ("Cuticle")

-thin strip of epithelium that protects the matrix

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Sebaceous glands

-secretions *(secrete an oily substance called sebum) *(bactericidal) *(stimulated by hormones)

-function as holocrine glands

-usually secrete into hair follicles

-secretions soften and lubricate hair and skin *(prevent excessive water loss) *(prevent bacterial growth)

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Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)

-scattered over the whole body (excluding nipples & genitals)

-two types *(Merocrine (Eccrine) sweat glands) *(Apocrine sweat glands)

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Structure of Aprocrine sweat gland

<p>-located in axillary &amp; anogenital regions</p><p>-ducts empty into hair follicles</p>

-located in axillary & anogenital regions

-ducts empty into hair follicles

<p>-located in axillary &amp; anogenital regions</p><p>-ducts empty into hair follicles</p>
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Secretion of Apocrine sweat gland

<p>-same basic components as eccrine sweat + some fatty substances &amp; proteins</p><p>-secretions are odorless but when decomposed by bacteria on the skin = body odor</p>

-same basic components as eccrine sweat + some fatty substances & proteins

-secretions are odorless but when decomposed by bacteria on the skin = body odor

<p>-same basic components as eccrine sweat + some fatty substances &amp; proteins</p><p>-secretions are odorless but when decomposed by bacteria on the skin = body odor</p>
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Merocrine sweat glands

<p>-abundant on palms, soles, and forehead</p><p>-sweat: hypotonic filtrate of the blood *(99% H2O)</p><p>-3 functions</p><p>-completely sympathetically regulated *(emotionally-induced sweating)</p>

-abundant on palms, soles, and forehead

-sweat: hypotonic filtrate of the blood *(99% H2O)

-3 functions

-completely sympathetically regulated *(emotionally-induced sweating)

<p>-abundant on palms, soles, and forehead</p><p>-sweat: hypotonic filtrate of the blood *(99% H2O)</p><p>-3 functions</p><p>-completely sympathetically regulated *(emotionally-induced sweating)</p>
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3 functions of Merocrine sweat glands

<p>-thermoregulation *(primary role of sweat is to prevent overheating of body)</p><p>-excretion *(salts &amp; metabolic wastes, such as urea)</p><p>-protection *(antibodies &amp; derminidin (anti-bacterial peptide))</p>

-thermoregulation *(primary role of sweat is to prevent overheating of body)

-excretion *(salts & metabolic wastes, such as urea)

-protection *(antibodies & derminidin (anti-bacterial peptide))

<p>-thermoregulation *(primary role of sweat is to prevent overheating of body)</p><p>-excretion *(salts &amp; metabolic wastes, such as urea)</p><p>-protection *(antibodies &amp; derminidin (anti-bacterial peptide))</p>
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