Psych of Learning Exam 2

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activity-dependent enhancement

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activity-dependent enhancement

Paired training of CS and US that produces an increase in the glutamate vesicles released from sensory neurons to motor neurons.

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appetitive conditioning

conditioning in which the US is an desirable event; such as food delivery or possibly a birthday party

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associative weight

in the Rescorla-Wagner model of conditioning, a value representing the strength of association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus

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aversive conditioning

conditioning in which the US is an undesirable/dissagreeable event

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a two-phase training paradigm in which prior conditioning with one cue blocks later learning of a second cue when the two are paired together in the second phase of the training; there is most likely one that is more prominent than the other because it was introduced first.

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brain region that lies below the cerebral cortex in the back of the head. it is responsible for the regulation and coordination of complex voluntary muscular movement, including classical conditioning of motor-reflex responses.

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classical conditioning

form of learning in which an animal acquires the expectation that a given stimulus predicts a specific upcoming important event. (pavlov) like thinking of fall whenever seeing a pumpkin spice latte.

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compound conditioning

conditioning in which two or more cues are present together, usually simultaneously, forming a compound CS.

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conditioned response

the trained response to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus that the CS predicts.

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conditioned stimulus

a cue that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and comes to elicit a conditioned response.

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conditioned taste aversion

a conditioning preparation in which a subject learns to avoid a taste that has been paired with an aversive outcome, usually nausea.

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CS modulation theory

any of the theories of conditioning that say the stimulus that enters into an association is determined by a change in how the CS is processed.

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delay conditioning

a conditioning procedure where there is no temporal gap between the end of the CS and the beginning of the US and in which the CS ends with the US.

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error-correction learning

learning through trial and error to reduce the discrepancy (error) between what is predicted and what actually occurs.

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the process of reducing a learning response to a stimulus by ceasing to pair that stimulus with a reward or punishment. "behaviors go die"-marin

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eyeblink conditioning

a classical conditioning procedure in which the US is an airpuff to the eye and the CS and UR are eyeblinks.

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the tendency of the body (including the brain) to gravitate toward a state of equilibrium or balance.

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Inferior olive

located in the brainstem, a nucleus of cells that conveys information about aversive stimuli, such as an airpuff US, up to both the interpositus nucleus and the cerebellar cortex. "i hate olives" = aversive

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interpositus nucleus

one of the cerebellar deep nuclei from which the conditioned response output is generated in classically conditioned motor responses. inside the purkinje cell which makes classical conditioning possible.

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interstimulus interval (ISI)

the temporal gap between the onset of the CS and the onset of the US. (we study the gap in between the new and the old thing.)

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latent inhibition

a conditioning paradigm in which prior exposure to a CS retards later learning of the CS-US association during acquisition training. (like Owen in Grey's Anatomy having a bad reaction to similar stimuli from his past.)

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an effect seen in compound conditioning when a more salient cue within a compound acquires more association strength than does the less salient cue and is thus more strongly associated with the US.

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prediction error

the difference between what was predicted and what actually occured.

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purkinje cell

a type of large, drop-shaped, and densely branching neuron in the cerebellar cortex. needed for classical conditioning. spontaneously fire all of the time, even when nothing is happening.

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a decrease in reaction to a drug such that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect.

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trace conditioning

a conditioning procedure in which there is a temporal gap between the end of the CS and the beginning of the US.

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trial-level model

a theory of learning in which all the cues that occur during a trial and all the changes that result are considered a single event. like when you have an experiment, you are looking at the entire process (that is called a trial)

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unconditioned response

that naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus. like being startled by a loud noise or shivering when you are cold.

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unconditioned stimulus

a cue that has some biological significance and that, in the absense of prior training, naturally evokes a response; cutting onions makes your eyes water.

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US moduation theory

any of the theories of conditioning that say the stimulus that enters into an association is determined by a change in how the US is processed.

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Edward Thorndike

studied how animals learned associations; observed how cats escape from puzzle boxes

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B.F. Skinner

father of operant conditioning; believed psychologists should limit themselves only to the study of observable behaviors that can be learned through experience, and not what is going on inside the mind of the animal.

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in behavioral economics, an action or behavior that provides benefit to another at the expense of some cost to the actor.

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basal ganglia

brain region that lies at the base of the forebrain and includes the dorsal striatum; responsible for motor control, etc...

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behavioral addiction

pathological addiction to a behavior (rather than pharmacological substance); like being addicted to reading.

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behavioral economics

the study of how organisms allocate their time and resources among possible options like how businesses do in our economy.

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bliss point

in behavioral economics, the allocation of resources that maximizes subjective value or satisfaction. like the peak of performance or most optimal level of satisfaction.

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an operant conditioning technique in which organisms are gradually trained to execute complicated sequences of discrete responses. breaking down complicated steps one by one for each of the to be completed.

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concurrent reinforcement schedule

reinforcement schedule where the organism can choose between several possible responses, each leading to a different outcome. two things are happening at the same time.

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continuous reinforcement schedule

a reinforcement schedule in which every instance of the response is followed by the reinforcer. like getting a sticker everytime you get one question right.

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cumulative recorder

a device used for recording responses in operant conditioning, designed in such a way that the height of the line it draws represents the total (cumulative) number of responses made up to a given time.

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delay discounting

the progressive reduction (or discounting) of the subjective value of a reward the longer it is delayed. so the grades that are put in at the end of a semester from a quiz you took the first week no longer mean much because they were not presented in a timely manner.

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differential reinforcement of alternate behaviors (DRA)

a method used to decrease the frequency of unwanted behaviors by instead reinforcing preferred alternate behaviors.

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discrete-trials paradigm

an operant conditioning paradigm in which the experimenter difines the beginning and end points of each trial. the experimenter controls everything and the animal knows nothing.

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discriminative stimulus

a stimulus indicating that a particular response may lead to a particular outcome.

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dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)

a brain region that may play a role in the motivational value of pain; the part that tells us how much pain will motivate us to do something or change something we do.

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dorsal striatum

region of the basal ganglia that is important for stimulus response learning and important for both classical and operant conditioning.

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drive reduction theory

the theory, proposed by Hull, that all learning reflects the innate, biological need to obtain primary reinforcers; people do everything they can do to survive and they are constantly motivated by needs.

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endogenous opiods

any large group of naturally occuring neurotransmitter-like substances that have many of the same effects as opiate drugs; may help signal the hedonic value of reinforcers in the brain. help us see how good a reward is in our brain

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fixed-interval schedule

reinforcement schedule in which the first response after a fixed amount of time is reinforced. time in which you engage in a behavior for reinforcement.

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fixed-ratio schedule

reinforcement schedule in which a specific number of responses must occur before getting the reward; the number of times you have to engage in a behavior to get a reward.

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free-operant paradigm

an operant conditioning paradigm in which the animal can operate the aparatus as it chooses in order to obtain reinforcement or avoid punishment;

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hedonic value

the subjective "goodness" or value of a reinforcer or reward

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incentive salience hypothesis

the hypothesis that dopamine helps provide us with the motivation to work for a reward.

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insular cortex (insula)

brain region involved in conscious awareness of bodily and emotional states a plays a role in signaling the aversive value of stimuli; helps us be aware of our own feelings and bodily needs and can tell us how bad or good a certain thing is.

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matching law of choice behavior

the principle that an organism, given the choice between multiple responses, will make each response at a rate proportional to how often that response is reinforced relative to the other choices; like if you get paid more for one job than another job, you are more likely to do the job that pays you more.

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motivational value

how much we are willing to work to get what we want. how much we value the reward in order to work.

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negative contrast

phenomenon in which the reinforcing value of one reward is reduced because a better reward is expected; like applying to two jobs, one offers more money and benefits, you are ultimately going to choose the one with more money in the long run.

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negative punishment

type of operant conditioning in which the response causes a desirable element to be "subtracted from" the environment; over time, the response becomes less frequent. like when your parents take away your phone because you did not do the dishes. this means that you are more likely to do the dishes to avoid having your phone taken away.

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negative reinforcement

type of operant conditioning which takes away an undesirable event in order to increase the likelihood of the expected response; like taking away a pop quiz that was previously planned when students started regularly attending the lectures.

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operant conditioning

conditioning in which organisms learn to make or to refrain from making certain responses in order to obtain or avoid certain outcomes; bf skinner

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orbitofrontal cortex

brain region that is important for learning to predict the outcomes of particular responses.

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partial reinforcement schedule

reinforcement schedule in which only some instances of the response are followed by the reward. like the rat presses the lever but only recieves the treat once every three times.

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pathological addiction

a strong habit that is maintained despite harmful consequences; like being addicted to nicotine but still vaping despite the harm it does to your lungs.

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positive punishment

type of operant conditioning in which response causes an undesirable event to be added to decrease the likelihood of the behavior from occuring. like in kindergarten we would have to move our clip or lose stickers from talking in class too much and this made our frequency of talking decrease.

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positive reinforcement

type of operant conditioning in which a desirable event is added in order to increase the likelihood of a behavior occuring. like giving gold stars whenever we make a good grade on an assignment in class.

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post-reinforcement pause

a brief pause in responding that follows delivery of the reinforcer. like a rat needing time to eat the treat they received before pressing the lever again.

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primary reinforcer

a reinforcer that is of biological value to an organism; like food, water, sex, clothing, etc...

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a consequence of behavior that leads to a decreased likelihood of that behavior in the future.

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the process of providing outcomes (punishers) that lead to decreased probability of a particular behavior occuring in the future

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reciprocal altruism

in behavioral economics the principle that one organism may donate time or resources to help another in the expectation that the other will return the favor later on.

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the process of providing outcomes (reinforcers) that lead to increased probability of a particular behavior occuring in the future

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reinforcement schedule

a schedule that determines how often reinforcement is delivered in an operant conditioning paradigm.

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a consequence of a behavior that leads to increased likelihood of that behavior in the future.

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secodary reinforcer

a reinforcer that initially has no biological value but has been paired with or predicts the arrival of a primary reinforcer like money providing shelter and food.

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an organism's willingness to forgo a small immediate reward in favor of a larger future reward.

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technique in which successive approximations to the desired response are reinforced. nudging someone along so that they are closer to the desired behavior

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skinner box

a chamber used for operant conditioning and designed so that reinforcement or punishment is delivered automatically whenever an animal makes a particular response (such as pressing a lever for a treat) by b.f. skinner

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substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)

part of the basal ganglia that contains dopamine-producing neurons projecting to the striatum. sends the happy pills.

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token economy

an environment in which tokens function the same way as money does in the outside world.

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variable-interval schedule

reinforcement schedule in which the first response after a fixed amount of time, on average, is reinforced. tend to produce higher rates of responding than FR. you engage in 3 to 5 times and the reinforcement may or may not come in that interval.

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variable-ratio schedule

reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement comes after the response; has wiggle room as compared to fixed schedules. a specific number of responses must occur before a reward is delivered.

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ventral tegmental area (VTA)

brain region that contains dopamine-producing neurons projecting to the frontal cortex and other brain areas. sends the feel-good pills to parts of the brain that need a boost.

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acetylcholine (ACh)

neuromodulator that strongly influences hippocampal function

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acquired equivalence

a learning and generalization paradigm in which prior training in stimulus equivalence increases the amount of generalization between two stimuli, even if those stimuli are superficially dissimilar. seeing two things together more often makes it easier to generalize even if the two things don't actually work that well together.

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a division or class of entities in the world; common group

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an internal psychological representation of a real or abstract entity; our topics we discuss are called this.

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concept formation

process which we learn about new categories of entities in the world, usually based on common features. we are forming generalizations and distinctions of these things in our brains as we learn more.

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confirmation bias

tendency to ignore information that conflicts with a prior belief and focus on information that is consistent with that belief.

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consequential region

a set of stimuli in the world that share the same consequence as a stimulus whose consequence is already known. basically a group of things that elicit the same response.

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discrete-component representation

representation in which each individual stimulus or feature corresponds to one element or node in the model

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discrimination learning

the process by which animals or people learn to respond differently to different stimuli.

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distributed representation

a representation in which information is coded as a pattern of activation distributed across many different nodes

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errorless discrimination learning

a training procedure in which a difficult discrimination is learned by starting with an easy version working up to the harder versions. like how in college we start with level 100 classes and work up to level 400.

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the transfer of past learning to novel events and problems

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generalization gradient

a curve showing how physical changes in stimuli (plotted on horizontal axis) correspond to changes in behavioral responses (plotted on vertical axis) a correlation of changes in stimuli to changes in behavior

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hippocampal region

the hippocampus and associated brain regions, including entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus. In humans, also referred to as the medial temporal lobe. important for memory storage.

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inductive inference

a logical inference that is probably (but not necessarily) true and is usually based on attempts to draw a general rule from one or more specific instances or premises.

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medial temporal lobe

the medial (or inner) surface of the temporal lobes that contains the hippocampus, the amygdala, and other structures important for memory

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negative patterning

a behavioral paradigm in which the appropriate responses to individual cues in positive, wheras the appropriate responses to their combination (pattern) is negative (has no response)

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