ap psych test #1

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47 Terms
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mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

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median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

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mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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range

the difference between the highest and lower scores in a distribution.

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representative samples

a random sample that represents a specific group

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random selection

randomly selected for a study from a group of applicants to become a participant.

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random assignment

once you are selected to participate in a study, you are randomly assigned to a group

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control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between to things (from -1 to +1).

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illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

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case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

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experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

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naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

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cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

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single blind procedure

a type of clinical trial in which only the researcher doing the study knows which treatment or intervention the participant is receiving until the trial is over.

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double blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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placebo

an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug

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placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

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genie -possible birth defect

evolutionary - nature

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genie - brain development, processsing/problem solving/language skills

cognitive - nature (w/ a little nurture)

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genie - learned/conditioned not to speak

behavioral - nurture

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genie - no relationships, denied the ability to reach her fullest potential, had no free will

humanism - nurture

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genie - lack of nutrients, study what hindered her brain development/genetic history

biological - nature

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genie - deprived of social interaction, no community

social cultural - nurture

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genie - stopped talking as a defense mechanism

psychoanalytical - nurture

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dorothea dix

known for investigating the conditions of asylums and pushing for reform

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psychoanalytical

sigmund freud

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cognitive

chomsky

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behavioral

watson/skinner

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humanistic

rogers/maslow

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evolutionary

darwin

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hindsight bias

the tendency to believe you knew something all along after finding the results (i knew it all along)

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what concepts of the code of ethics were violated in the genie case?

do no harm, consent

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human tendency to find order in random events

if you flip a coin 6 times, people look for patterns within the sequence even though any sequence of heads or tails is equally likely

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benefits of the case study

observes and records behavior

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benefits of correlation study

finding naturally occurring relationships (how one variable predicts another)

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benefits of experiments

explores cause and effect because an independent variable is being studied

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confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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